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      Public Health Perspectives of Preeclampsia in Developing Countries: Implication for Health System Strengthening

      review-article
      1 , * , 2
      Journal of Pregnancy
      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Objectives. Review of public health perspectives of preeclampsia in developing countries and implications for health system strengthening. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), AJOL, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database were reviewed. Results. The prevalence of preeclampsia in developing countries ranges from 1.8% to 16.7%. Many challenges exist in the prediction, prevention, and management of preeclampsia. Promising prophylactic measures like low-dose aspirin and calcium supplementation need further evidence before recommendation for use in developing countries. Treatment remains prenatal care, timely diagnosis, proper management, and timely delivery. Prevailing household, community, and health system factors limiting effective control of preeclampsia in these countries were identified, and strategies to strengthen health systems were highlighted. Conclusion. Overcoming the prevailing challenges in the control of preeclampsia in developing countries hinges on the ability of health care systems to identify and manage women at high risk.

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          Most cited references99

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          India's Janani Suraksha Yojana, a conditional cash transfer programme to increase births in health facilities: an impact evaluation.

          In 2005, with the goal of reducing the numbers of maternal and neonatal deaths, the Government of India launched Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a conditional cash transfer scheme, to incentivise women to give birth in a health facility. We independently assessed the effect of JSY on intervention coverage and health outcomes. We used data from the nationwide district-level household surveys done in 2002-04 and 2007-09 to assess receipt of financial assistance from JSY as a function of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics; and used three analytical approaches (matching, with-versus-without comparison, and differences in differences) to assess the effect of JSY on antenatal care, in-facility births, and perinatal, neonatal, and maternal deaths. Implementation of JSY in 2007-08 was highly variable by state-from less than 5% to 44% of women giving birth receiving cash payments from JSY. The poorest and least educated women did not always have the highest odds of receiving JSY payments. JSY had a significant effect on increasing antenatal care and in-facility births. In the matching analysis, JSY payment was associated with a reduction of 3.7 (95% CI 2.2-5.2) perinatal deaths per 1000 pregnancies and 2.3 (0.9-3.7) neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths. In the with-versus-without comparison, the reductions were 4.1 (2.5-5.7) perinatal deaths per 1000 pregnancies and 2.4 (0.7-4.1) neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths. The findings of this assessment are encouraging, but they also emphasise the need for improved targeting of the poorest women and attention to quality of obstetric care in health facilities. Continued independent monitoring and evaluations are important to measure the effect of JSY as financial and political commitment to the programme intensifies. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction with aspirin started in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis.

            To estimate the effect of low-dose aspirin started in early pregnancy on the incidence of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed through electronic database searches (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase). Randomized controlled trials of pregnant women at risk of preeclampsia who were assigned to receive aspirin or placebo (or no treatment) were reviewed. Secondary outcomes included IUGR, severe preeclampsia and preterm birth. The effect of aspirin was analyzed as a function of gestational age at initiation of the intervention (16 weeks of gestation or less, 16 weeks of gestation or more). Thirty-four randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, including 27 studies (11,348 women) with follow-up for the outcome of preeclampsia. Low-dose aspirin started at 16 weeks or earlier was associated with a significant reduction in preeclampsia (relative risk [RR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.65, prevalence in 9.3% treated compared with 21.3% control) and IUGR (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.65, 7% treated compared with 16.3% control), whereas aspirin started after 16 weeks was not (preeclampsia: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63-1.03, prevalence in 7.3% treated compared with 8.1% control; IUGR: RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87-1.10, 10.3% treated compared with 10.5% control). Low-dose aspirin started at 16 weeks or earlier also was associated with a reduction in severe preeclampsia (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.37, 0.7% treated compared with 15.0% control), gestational hypertension (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, 16.7% treated compared with 29.7% control), and preterm birth (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.49, 3.5% treated compared with 16.9% control). Of note, all studies for which aspirin had been started at 16 weeks or earlier included women identified to be at moderate or high risk for preeclampsia. Low-dose aspirin initiated in early pregnancy is an efficient method of reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and IUGR.
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              Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: a randomised trial.

              Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia. This randomised controlled trial investigated the effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E in women at increased risk of the disorder on plasma markers of vascular endothelial activation and placental insufficiency and the occurrence of pre-eclampsia. 283 women were identified as being at increased risk of pre-eclampsia by abnormal two-stage uterine-artery doppler analysis or a previous history of the disorder and were randomly assigned vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and vitamin E (400 IU/day) or placebo at 16-22 weeks' gestation. Plasma markers of endothelial activation (plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 [PAI-1]) and placental dysfunction (PAI-2) were measured every month until delivery. Pre-eclampsia was assessed by the development of proteinuric hypertension. Analyses were done by intention to treat, and in the cohort who completed the study. Supplementation with vitamins C and E was associated with a 21% decrease in the PAI-1/PAI-2 ratio during gestation (95% CI 4-35, p=0.015). In the intention-to-treat cohort, pre-eclampsia occurred in 24 (17%) of 142 women in the placebo group and 11 (8%) of 141 in the vitamin group (adjusted odds ratio 0.39 [0.17-0.90], p=0.02). In the cohort who completed the study (81 placebo group, 79 vitamin group), the odds ratio for pre-eclampsia was 0.24 (0.08-0.70, p=0.002). Supplementation with vitamins C and E may be beneficial in the prevention of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk of the disease. Multicentre trials are needed to show whether vitamin supplementation affects the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in low-risk women and to confirm our results in larger groups of high-risk women from different populations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pregnancy
                JP
                Journal of Pregnancy
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-2727
                2090-2735
                2011
                4 April 2011
                : 2011
                Affiliations
                1Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine and University College Hospital, University of Ibadan, P.M.B. 5017 General Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria
                2Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, P.M.B. 5116, Ibadan, Nigeria
                Author notes
                *Kayode O. Osungbade: koosungbade@ 123456yahoo.com

                Academic Editor: Sean Blackwell

                Article
                10.1155/2011/481095
                3087154
                21547090
                1b4343d4-4973-469f-85e1-36895342bb9f
                Copyright © 2011 K. O. Osungbade and O. K. Ige.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Obstetrics & Gynecology

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