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      SIRT1 Activating compounds reduce oxidative stress mediated neuronal loss in viral induced CNS demyelinating disease


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          Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system inflammation and demyelination, and increasing evidence demonstrates significant neuronal damage also occurs and is associated with permanent functional impairment. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage, suggesting additional neuroprotective therapies are needed. Compounds that activate the NAD +-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase prevent neuronal loss in an autoimmune-mediated MS model, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown, and it is unclear whether SIRT1 activating compounds exert similar effects in demyelinating disease induced by other etiologies. We measured neuronal loss in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus, MHV-A59, that induces an MS-like disease.


          Oral treatment with the SIRT1 activating compound SRTAW04 significantly increased SIRT1 activity within optic nerves and prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve lesion that occurs in MS and its animal models. MHV-A59 induced neuronal loss was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and SRTAW04 treatment significantly reduced ROS levels while promoting increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial function and reduction of ROS. SRTAW04 exerted similar protective effects in EAE spinal cords, with decreased demyelination.


          Results demonstrate that SIRT1 activating compounds prevent neuronal loss in viral-induced demyelinating disease similar to their effects in autoimmune-mediated disease. One mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves increasing mitochondrial biogenesis with reduction of oxidative stress. SIRT1 activators represent a potential neuroprotective therapy for MS. Understanding common mechanisms of these effects in distinct disease models will help identify targets for more specific therapies.

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          Most cited references50

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          Multiple Sclerosis

          New England Journal of Medicine, 343(13), 938-952
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            Small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

            Calorie restriction extends lifespan and produces a metabolic profile desirable for treating diseases of ageing such as type 2 diabetes. SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is a principal modulator of pathways downstream of calorie restriction that produce beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic SIRT1 activator, mimics the anti-ageing effects of calorie restriction in lower organisms and in mice fed a high-fat diet ameliorates insulin resistance, increases mitochondrial content, and prolongs survival. Here we describe the identification and characterization of small molecule activators of SIRT1 that are structurally unrelated to, and 1,000-fold more potent than, resveratrol. These compounds bind to the SIRT1 enzyme-peptide substrate complex at an allosteric site amino-terminal to the catalytic domain and lower the Michaelis constant for acetylated substrates. In diet-induced obese and genetically obese mice, these compounds improve insulin sensitivity, lower plasma glucose, and increase mitochondrial capacity. In Zucker fa/fa rats, hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp studies demonstrate that SIRT1 activators improve whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. Thus, SIRT1 activation is a promising new therapeutic approach for treating diseases of ageing such as type 2 diabetes.
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              The Sir2 family of protein deacetylases.

              The yeast SIR protein complex has been implicated in transcription silencing and suppression of recombination. The Sir complex represses transcription at telomeres, mating-type loci, and ribosomal DNA. Unlike SIR3 and SIR4, the SIR2 gene is highly conserved in organisms ranging from archaea to humans. Interestingly, Sir2 is active as an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, which is broadly conserved from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss the role of NAD+, the unusual products of the deacetylation reaction, the Sir2 structure, and the Sir2 chemical inhibitors and activators that were recently identified. We summarize the current knowledge of the Sir2 homologs from different organisms, and finally we discuss the role of Sir2 in caloric restriction and aging.

                Author and article information

                Acta Neuropathol Commun
                Acta Neuropathol Commun
                Acta Neuropathologica Communications
                BioMed Central
                2 January 2014
                : 2
                : 3
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute and FM Kirby Center for Molecular Ophthalmology, Stellar-Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
                [2 ]Department of Biological Science, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research-Kolkata (IISER-K), Mohanpur Campus Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal 741252, India
                Copyright © 2014 Khan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 29 November 2013
                : 21 December 2013

                oxidative stress,mouse hepatitis virus,neuroprotection,sirt1,demyelinating disease,optic neuropathy


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