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      Effect of Homocysteine-Induced Oxidative Stress on Endothelial Function in Coronary Slow-Flow

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          Abstract

          Background and Objective: Coronary slow-flow (CSF) phenomenon is characterized by delayed opacification of vessels in a normal coronary angiogram, but its etiopathogenesis remains unclear. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level can severely disturb vascular endothelial function and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CSF. In our study, endothelial function in patients with CSF and their relationship with Hcy and oxidative stress parameters are investigated. Method: Forty-four patients with angiographically proven CSF and 44 cases with normal coronary flow pattern with similar risk profile were enrolled in the study. Coronary flow patterns of the cases are determined by Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count method. Endothelium dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and independent vasodilatation characteristics are evaluated by high frequency ultrasound over the brachial artery. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and reduction of oxidative material in the body and the end product of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) are measured as oxidative stress markers in blood samples. Results: Plasma Hcy level (µmol/l) of patients with CSF was found to be significantly higher than in controls (12.2 ± 4.9 vs. 8.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.0001). FMD was 7.87 ± 2.0% in controls and 4.98 ± 1.1% in patients with CSF (p = 0.0001). GSH was reduced in patients with CSF. SOD and MDA activity were found higher in patients with CSF than control subjects. Plasma Hcy level was significantly positively correlated with mean TIMI frame count and negatively correlated with FMD in correlation analysis (r = 0.58, p = 0.0001; r = –0.41, p = 0.022; respectively). Conclusion: The present findings allow us to conclude that patients with CSF have increased levels of Hcy and oxidative stress markers and impaired endothelial cell function.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine in atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

           L Ludmer,  R Wayne,  G Mudge (1986)
          Acetylcholine is believed to dilate normal blood vessels by promoting the release of a vasorelaxant substance from the endothelium (endothelium-derived relaxing factor). By contrast, if the endothelium is removed experimentally, acetylcholine constricts blood vessels. We tested the hypothesis that muscarinic cholinergic vasodilation is impaired in coronary atherosclerosis. Graded concentrations of acetylcholine and, for comparison, the nonendothelial-dependent vasodilator nitroglycerin were infused into the left anterior descending artery of eight patients with advanced coronary stenoses (greater than 50 percent narrowing), four subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries, and six patients with mild coronary atherosclerosis (less than 20 percent narrowing). Vascular responses were evaluated by quantitative angiography. In several segments each of four normal coronary arteries, acetylcholine caused a dose-dependent dilation from a control diameter of 1.94 +/- 0.16 mm to 2.16 +/- 0.15 mm with the maximal acetylcholine dose (P less than 0.01). In contrast, all eight of the arteries with advanced stenoses showed dose-dependent constriction, from 1.05 +/- 0.05 to 0.32 +/- 0.16 mm at the highest concentration of acetylcholine (P less than 0.01), with temporary occlusion in five. Five of six vessels with minimal disease also constricted in response to acetylcholine. All vessels dilated in response to nitroglycerin, however. We conclude that paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine occurs early as well as late in the course of coronary atherosclerosis. Our preliminary findings suggest that the abnormal vascular response to acetylcholine may represent a defect in endothelial vasodilator function, and may be important in the pathogenesis of coronary vasospasm.
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            Angina pectoris and slow flow velocity of dye in coronary arteries--a new angiographic finding.

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              Lipid peroxides and human diseases

               Kunio Yagi (1987)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                May 2007
                30 January 2007
                : 107
                : 4
                : 313-320
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiology, bBiochemistry, and cRadiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, and dDepartment of Cardiology, Ataturk Egitim Arastirma Hospital, İzmir, Turkey
                Article
                99068 Cardiology 2007;107:313–320
                10.1159/000099068
                17264512
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 37, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

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