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      Effect of Homocysteine-Induced Oxidative Stress on Endothelial Function in Coronary Slow-Flow


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          Background and Objective: Coronary slow-flow (CSF) phenomenon is characterized by delayed opacification of vessels in a normal coronary angiogram, but its etiopathogenesis remains unclear. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level can severely disturb vascular endothelial function and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CSF. In our study, endothelial function in patients with CSF and their relationship with Hcy and oxidative stress parameters are investigated. Method: Forty-four patients with angiographically proven CSF and 44 cases with normal coronary flow pattern with similar risk profile were enrolled in the study. Coronary flow patterns of the cases are determined by Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count method. Endothelium dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and independent vasodilatation characteristics are evaluated by high frequency ultrasound over the brachial artery. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and reduction of oxidative material in the body and the end product of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) are measured as oxidative stress markers in blood samples. Results: Plasma Hcy level (µmol/l) of patients with CSF was found to be significantly higher than in controls (12.2 ± 4.9 vs. 8.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.0001). FMD was 7.87 ± 2.0% in controls and 4.98 ± 1.1% in patients with CSF (p = 0.0001). GSH was reduced in patients with CSF. SOD and MDA activity were found higher in patients with CSF than control subjects. Plasma Hcy level was significantly positively correlated with mean TIMI frame count and negatively correlated with FMD in correlation analysis (r = 0.58, p = 0.0001; r = –0.41, p = 0.022; respectively). Conclusion: The present findings allow us to conclude that patients with CSF have increased levels of Hcy and oxidative stress markers and impaired endothelial cell function.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine in atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

           L Ludmer,  R Wayne,  G Mudge (1986)
          Acetylcholine is believed to dilate normal blood vessels by promoting the release of a vasorelaxant substance from the endothelium (endothelium-derived relaxing factor). By contrast, if the endothelium is removed experimentally, acetylcholine constricts blood vessels. We tested the hypothesis that muscarinic cholinergic vasodilation is impaired in coronary atherosclerosis. Graded concentrations of acetylcholine and, for comparison, the nonendothelial-dependent vasodilator nitroglycerin were infused into the left anterior descending artery of eight patients with advanced coronary stenoses (greater than 50 percent narrowing), four subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries, and six patients with mild coronary atherosclerosis (less than 20 percent narrowing). Vascular responses were evaluated by quantitative angiography. In several segments each of four normal coronary arteries, acetylcholine caused a dose-dependent dilation from a control diameter of 1.94 +/- 0.16 mm to 2.16 +/- 0.15 mm with the maximal acetylcholine dose (P less than 0.01). In contrast, all eight of the arteries with advanced stenoses showed dose-dependent constriction, from 1.05 +/- 0.05 to 0.32 +/- 0.16 mm at the highest concentration of acetylcholine (P less than 0.01), with temporary occlusion in five. Five of six vessels with minimal disease also constricted in response to acetylcholine. All vessels dilated in response to nitroglycerin, however. We conclude that paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine occurs early as well as late in the course of coronary atherosclerosis. Our preliminary findings suggest that the abnormal vascular response to acetylcholine may represent a defect in endothelial vasodilator function, and may be important in the pathogenesis of coronary vasospasm.
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            Angina pectoris and slow flow velocity of dye in coronary arteries--a new angiographic finding.

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              [43] Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid Peroxidation

               H.H. Draper,  M Hadley (1990)

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2007
                30 January 2007
                : 107
                : 4
                : 313-320
                Departments of aCardiology, bBiochemistry, and cRadiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, and dDepartment of Cardiology, Ataturk Egitim Arastirma Hospital, İzmir, Turkey
                99068 Cardiology 2007;107:313–320
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 37, Pages: 8
                Original Research


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