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      Spaghetti to a Tree: A Robust Phylogeny for Terebelliformia (Annelida) Based on Transcriptomes, Molecular and Morphological Data

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          Abstract

          Terebelliformia—“spaghetti worms” and their allies—are speciose and ubiquitous marine annelids but our understanding of how their morphological and ecological diversity evolved is hampered by an uncertain delineation of lineages and their phylogenetic relationships. Here, we analyzed transcriptomes of 20 terebelliforms and an outgroup to build a robust phylogeny of the main lineages grounded on 12,674 orthologous genes. We then supplemented this backbone phylogeny with a denser sampling of 121 species using five genes and 90 morphological characters to elucidate fine-scale relationships. The monophyly of six major taxa was supported: Pectinariidae, Ampharetinae, Alvinellidae, Trichobranchidae, Terebellidae and Melinninae. The latter, traditionally a subfamily of Ampharetidae, was unexpectedly the sister to Terebellidae, and hence becomes Melinnidae, and Ampharetinae becomes Ampharetidae. We found no support for the recently proposed separation of Telothelepodidae, Polycirridae and Thelepodidae from Terebellidae. Telothelepodidae was nested within Thelepodinae and is accordingly made its junior synonym. Terebellidae contained the subfamily-ranked taxa Terebellinae and Thelepodinae. The placement of the simplified Polycirridae within Terebellinae differed from previous hypotheses, warranting the division of Terebellinae into Lanicini, Procleini, Terebellini and Polycirrini. Ampharetidae (excluding Melinnidae) were well-supported as the sister group to Alvinellidae and we recognize three clades: Ampharetinae, Amaginae and Amphicteinae. Our analysis found several paraphyletic genera and undescribed species. Morphological transformations on the phylogeny supported the hypothesis of an ancestor that possessed both branchiae and chaetae, which is at odds with proposals of a “naked” ancestor. Our study demonstrates how a robust backbone phylogeny can be combined with dense taxon coverage and morphological traits to give insights into the evolutionary history and transformation of traits.

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          Fast Coalescent-Based Computation of Local Branch Support from Quartet Frequencies

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            Cladistics and polychaetes

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              First molecular evidence for the existence of a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biology (Basel)
                Biology (Basel)
                biology
                Biology
                MDPI
                2079-7737
                06 April 2020
                April 2020
                : 9
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, CA 92037, USA; etilic@ 123456evolution.uni-bonn.de (E.T.);
                [2 ]Centre for Biodiversity Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
                [3 ]Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Animal Ecology, University of Bonn, 53121 Bonn, Germany
                [4 ]Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden; fredrik.pleijel@ 123456marine.gu.se
                Author notes
                Article
                biology-09-00073
                10.3390/biology9040073
                7236012
                32268525
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                phylogenomics, transcriptomics, annelida, terebelliformia

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