Blog
About

5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses: Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance

      , , ,

      Equine Veterinary Journal

      Wiley-Blackwell

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 124

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Intercontinental emergence of Escherichia coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15.

          Concomitant with the recent emergence of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), Escherichia coli has become the enterobacterial species most affected by ESBLs. Multiple locales are encountering CTX-M-positive E. coli, including specifically CTX-M-15. To gain insights into the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we assessed clonality and diversity of virulence profiles within an international collection of CTX-M-15-positive E. coli. Forty-one ESBL-positive E. coli isolates from eight countries and three continents (Europe, Asia and North America) were selected for study based on suspected clonality. Phylogenetic group, ERIC2 PCR profile, O H serotype, AmpC variant and antibiotic susceptibility were determined. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PFGE provided additional discrimination. Virulence potential was inferred by detection of 46 virulence factor (VF) genes. Thirty-six (88%) of the 41 E. coli isolates exhibited the same set of core characteristics: phylogenetic group B2, ERIC2 PCR profile 1, serotype O25:H4, AmpC EC6, ciprofloxacin resistance and MLST profile ST131. By PFGE, the 36 isolates constituted one large cluster at the 68% similarity level; this comprised 17 PFGE groups (defined at 85% similarity), some of which included strains from different countries. The 36 isolates exhibited highly (91% to 100%) similar VF profiles. We describe a broadly disseminated, CTX-M-15-positive and virulent E. coli clonal group with highly homogeneous virulence genotypes and subgroups exhibiting highly similar PFGE profiles, suggesting recent emergence. Understanding how this clone has emerged and successfully disseminated within the hospital and community, including across national boundaries, should be a public health priority.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Update on acquired tetracycline resistance genes.

             C. Roberts (2005)
            This mini-review summarizes the changes in the field of bacterial acquired tetracycline resistance (tet) and oxytetracycline (otr) genes identified since the last major review in 2001. Thirty-eight acquired tetracycline resistant (Tc(r)) genes are known of which nine are new and include five genes coding for energy-dependent efflux proteins, two genes coding for ribosomal protection proteins, and two genes coding for tetracycline inactivating enzymes. The number of inactivating enzymes has increased from one to three, suggesting that work needs to be done to determine the role these enzymes play in bacterial resistance to tetracycline. In the same time period, 66 new genera have been identified which carry one or more of the previously described 29 Tc(r) genes. Included in the new genera is, for the first time, an obligate intracellular pathogen suggesting that this sheltered group of bacteria is capable of DNA exchange with non-obligate intracellular bacteria. The number of genera carrying ribosomal protection genes increased dramatically with the tet(M) gene now identified in 42 genera as compared with 24 and the tet(W) gene found in 17 new genera as compared to two genera in the last major review. New conjugative transposons, carrying different ribosomal protection tet genes, have been identified and an increase in the number of antibiotic resistance genes linked to tet genes has been found. Whether these new elements may help to spread the tet genes they carry to a wider bacterial host range is discussed.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria.

               Fred Tenover (2006)
              The treatment of bacterial infections is increasingly complicated by the ability of bacteria to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial agents are often categorized according to their principal mechanism of action. Mechanisms include interference with cell wall synthesis (e.g., beta-lactams and glycopeptide agents), inhibition of protein synthesis (macrolides and tetracyclines), interference with nucleic acid synthesis (fluoroquinolones and rifampin), inhibition of a metabolic pathway (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), and disruption of bacterial membrane structure (polymyxins and daptomycin). Bacteria may be intrinsically resistant to > or =1 class of antimicrobial agents, or may acquire resistance by de novo mutation or via the acquisition of resistance genes from other organisms. Acquired resistance genes may enable a bacterium to produce enzymes that destroy the antibacterial drug, to express efflux systems that prevent the drug from reaching its intracellular target, to modify the drug's target site, or to produce an alternative metabolic pathway that bypasses the action of the drug. Acquisition of new genetic material by antimicrobial-susceptible bacteria from resistant strains of bacteria may occur through conjugation, transformation, or transduction, with transposons often facilitating the incorporation of the multiple resistance genes into the host's genome or plasmids. Use of antibacterial agents creates selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. Herein 3 case histories-one involving Escherichia coli resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, another focusing on the emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and a third detailing multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa--are reviewed to illustrate the varied ways in which resistant bacteria develop.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Equine Veterinary Journal
                Equine Vet J
                Wiley-Blackwell
                04251644
                November 2015
                November 2015
                : 47
                : 6
                : 756-765
                Article
                10.1111/evj.12471
                © 2015
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/evj.12471

                Comments

                Comment on this article