Background: Central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is due to a decrease of CRH and/or ACTH secretion. ACTH-dependent dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) has been postulated as a possible marker of adrenal function in adult patients. Aims: To evaluate the usefulness of basal serum DHEAS determination to diagnose CAI in pubertal patients with a suspected diagnosis of CAI. Methods: Ninety-four pubertal patients suspected of having CAI were divided into two groups according to sufficient (group 1) or insufficient (group 2) low-dose ACTH test serum cortisol response. Concordance with low (<2.5th percentile) or normal (≥2.5th percentile) basal serum DHEAS levels for age and sex, respectively, was analysed. Results: Fifty patients (53.2%) in group 1 and 44 (46.8%) in group 2 were included. The median value of serum DHEAS levels in group 2 (0.7 µmol/l, interquartile range 0.44-1.49) was significantly lower than in group 1 (2.13 µmol/l, interquartile range 0.87-3.5; p < 0.03). Nevertheless, serum basal DHEAS levels as a diagnostic marker of CAI showed 39% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Conclusion: In pubertal patients, basal serum DHEAS levels do not seem to be a useful tool to diagnose either sufficiency or insufficiency of secondary adrenal function.