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      An analysis of the Chinese Football Reform of 2015: why then and not earlier?

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4
      International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics
      Informa UK Limited

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          Multiple streams in EU policy-making: the case of the 2005 sugar reform

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            Ambiguity, multiple streams, and EU policy

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              MS2 Virus Inactivation by Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Using Different Gas Carriers and Power Levels

              In this study, airborne MS2 bacteriophages were exposed for subsecond time intervals to atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP) produced using different power levels (20, 24, and 28 W) and gas carriers (ambient air, Ar-O2[2%, vol/vol], and He-O2[2%, vol/vol]). In addition, waterborne MS2 viruses were directly subjected to the APCP treatment for up to 3 min. MS2 viruses with and without the APCP exposure were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Viral inactivation was shown to exhibit linear relationships with the APCP generation power and exposure time (R2> 0.95 for all energy levels tested) up to 95% inactivation (1.3-log reduction) after a subsecond airborne exposure at 28 W; about the same inactivation level was achieved for waterborne viruses with an exposure time of less than 1 min. A larger amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as atomic oxygen, in APCP was detected for a higher generation power with Ar-O2and He-O2gas carriers. SEM images, SDS-PAGE, and agarose gel analysis of exposed waterborne viruses showed various levels of damage to both surface proteins and their related RNA genes after the APCP exposure, thus leading to the loss of their viability and infectivity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics
                International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics
                Informa UK Limited
                1940-6940
                1940-6959
                July 24 2018
                January 02 2019
                November 14 2018
                January 02 2019
                : 11
                : 1
                : 1-18
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Business and Law, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
                [2 ] Institute for Sport Business, Loughborough University London, London, UK
                [3 ] School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicester, UK
                [4 ] The Norwegian, School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway
                Article
                10.1080/19406940.2018.1536075
                1b9a82e5-9698-42d8-b3ca-6d55e1c0a428
                © 2019
                History

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