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      Psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Adapted Index of Self-Efficacy (PRAISE) for individuals with COPD

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          Self-efficacy is related to the emotional functioning and coping skills of an individual and is thought to be a predictor of health behaviors, which are particularly important for pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). To our knowledge, no measure of self-efficacy has been validated to explore behavior changes in the context of PR for patients with COPD in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Adapted Index of Self-Efficacy (PRAISE).

          Patients and methods

          The original scale, developed and validated by Vincent et al was translated into Korean through a process involving forward and back translation of the original scale, and transcultural adaptation was performed following the structured procedure. Content validity was assessed by a panel of 6 expert judges. In a convenience sample of 118 patients with COPD, exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring, followed by oblique rotation was conducted to identify construct validity, and the concurrent validity was evaluated by testing correlations between the PRAISE and 6-minute walking distance test and the PRAISE and Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire results. Internal consistency was examined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficients.


          Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the 2-dimensional structure of the scale constructed from the original 15-item scale. The final scale was composed of 14 items that cumulatively explained 60.3% of the total variance. The 2 factors in the scale were named “general self-efficacy” and “exercise self-efficacy.” Significant correlations between the PRAISE, and 6-minute walking distance test and Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire showed the concurrent validity of the PRAISE. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the PRAISE was 0.93.


          The Korean version of the PRAISE showed adequate construct validity and reliability. These results suggest that the PRAISE is suitable for use in clinical settings as a predictor of PR behavior in Korean patients with COPD.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Self-management support interventions to reduce health care utilisation without compromising outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

          Background There is increasing interest in the role of ‘self-management’ interventions to support the management of long-term conditions in health service settings. Self-management may include patient education, support for decision-making, self-monitoring and psychological and social support. Self-management support has potential to improve the efficiency of health services by reducing other forms of utilisation (such as primary care or hospital use), but a shift to self-management may lead to negative outcomes, such as patients who feel more anxious about their health, are less able to cope, or who receive worse quality of care, all of which may impact on their health and quality of life. We sought to determine which models of self-management support are associated with significant reductions in health services utilisation without compromising outcomes among patients with long-term conditions. Methods We used systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomised controlled trials in patients with long-term conditions which included self-management support interventions and reported measures of service utilisation or costs, as well as measures of health outcomes (standardized disease specific quality of life, generic quality of life, or depression/anxiety).We searched multiple databases (CENTRAL, CINAHL, Econlit, EMBASE, HEED, MEDLINE, NHS EED and PsycINFO) and the reference lists of published reviews. We calculated effects sizes for both outcomes and costs, and presented the results in permutation plots, as well as conventional meta-analyses. Results We included 184 studies. Self-management support was associated with small but significant improvements in health outcomes, with the best evidence of effectiveness in patients with diabetic, respiratory, cardiovascular and mental health conditions. Only a minority of self-management support interventions reported reductions in health care utilisation in association with decrements in health. Evidence for reductions in utilisation associated with self-management support was strongest in respiratory and cardiovascular problems. Studies at higher risk of bias were more likely to report benefits. Conclusions Self-management support interventions can reduce health service utilization without compromising patient health outcomes, although effects were generally small, and the evidence was strongest in respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. Further work is needed to determine which components of self-management support are most effective. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-356) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Guide for construction self-efficacy scales

             A. BANDURA,  A Bandura (2006)
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              Analyzing likert data


                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                29 August 2017
                : 12
                : 2611-2620
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, South Korea
                [2 ]Division of Nursing, Hallym University, Chuncheon, South Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kyoung A Nam, Division of Nursing, Research Institute of Nursing Science, Hallym University, 1 Hallymdaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24252, South Korea, Tel +82 33 248 2717, Fax +82 33 248 2734, Email namka@
                © 2017 Song and Nam. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                reliability, validity, praise, self-efficacy, copd


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