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      Effect of surface preparation with Nd:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers on the repair bond strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramic to a silorane-based composite resin

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          Abstract

          Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate the repair bond strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramic to a silorane-based composite resin after surface preparation with Nd:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers.

          Methods. A total of 102 lithium disilicate glass ceramic samples (IPS e.max Press), measuring 5 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness, were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=17): group 1, no surface preparation (control); group 2, acid etching with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HF); group 3, surface preparation with 4.5-W Nd:YAG laser; group 4, surface preparation with 6-W Nd:YAG laser; group 5, surface preparation with 1.5-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser; and group 6, surface preparation with 6-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser. After preparation of surfaces and application of silane, all the samples were repaired with the use of a silorane-based composite resin, followed by storage in distilled water at a temperature of 37°C for 24 hours and thermocycling. Finally, the samples were subjected to a shearing bond strength test; the fracture modes were determined under a stereomi-croscope.

          Results. There were significant differences between the HF group and the other groups (P=0.000). Two-by-two comparisons of the other groups revealed no significant differences (P>0.05).

          Conclusion. Use of HF proved the most effective surface preparation technique to increase the repair bond strength between lithium disilicate glass ceramic and silorane-based composite resin; compared to the control group.

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          Effects of surface treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

          SUMMARY Objectives : The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of two surface treatments, fatigue and thermocycling, on the microtensile bond strength of a newly introduced lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-cured resin cement. Methods : A total of 18 ceramic blocks (10 mm long × 7 mm wide × 3.0 mm thick) were fabricated and divided into six groups (n=3): groups 1, 2, and 3-air particle abraded for five seconds with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles; groups 4, 5, and 6-acid etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds. A silane coupling agent was applied onto all specimens and allowed to dry for five seconds, and the ceramic blocks were bonded to a block of composite Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) resin cement and placed under a 500-g static load for two minutes. The cement excess was removed with a disposable microbrush, and four periods of light activation for 40 seconds each were performed at right angles using an LED curing unit (UltraLume LED 5, Ultradent) with a final 40 second light exposure from the top surface. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Groups 2 and 5 were submitted to 3,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, and groups 3 and 6 were submitted to a fatigue test of 100,000 cycles at 2 Hz. Specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the bonding area to obtain beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) (30 beams per group) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength test in a testing machine (EZ Test) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p≤0.05). Results : The microtensile bond strength values (MPa) were 26.9 ± 6.9, 22.2 ± 7.8, and 21.2 ± 9.1 for groups 1-3 and 35.0 ± 9.6, 24.3 ± 8.9, and 23.9 ± 6.3 for groups 4-6. For the control group, fatigue testing and thermocycling produced a predominance of adhesive failures. Fatigue and thermocycling significantly decreased the microtensile bond strength for both ceramic surface treatments when compared with the control groups. Etching with 10% hydrofluoric acid significantly increased the microtensile bond strength for the control group.
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            Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment.

            Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
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              An introduction to silanes and their clinical applications in dentistry.

              This overview presents a description of organofunctional trialkoxysilane coupling agents (silanes), their chemistry, properties, use, and some of the main clinical experiences in dentistry. The main emphasis was on major dental journals that have been reviewed from 1958 up to the latest research news from 2002. A MEDLINE search with the key words "dental silanes" was used. Special silane literature and journals outside dentistry were also cited. The main emphasis is on the use of silanes in prosthetic and restorative dentistry. Clinical relevance was based mainly on either short- or long-term tests. The interpretation of various results is not given, mainly because of controversial observations that may be very difficult to explain. Nevertheless, the majority of the clinical results pointed to silanes playing a significant role in the adhesion process. Silane reaction mechanisms were not entirely understood, and there exist several theories for bonding mechanisms for silanes and substrates. Dental materials offer a continuously challenging forum for silanes, and silanes will play an essential role in material development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects
                J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects
                J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects
                JODDD
                TBZMED
                Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
                Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
                2008-210X
                2008-2118
                Winter 2018
                14 March 2018
                : 12
                : 1
                : 12-17
                Affiliations
                1Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                2Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding Author; E-mail: rezvannasiri252@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.15171/joddd.2018.003
                5928469
                29732016
                1bb46696-c0e5-46ef-9537-72187f75b512
                © 2018 Ebrahimi Chaharom et al.

                This is an Open Access article published and distributed by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 21 April 2017
                : 15 August 2017
                Categories
                Original Article

                Dentistry
                er,cr:ysgg laser,nd:yag laser,hf,lithium disilicate glass ceramic
                Dentistry
                er, cr:ysgg laser, nd:yag laser, hf, lithium disilicate glass ceramic

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