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      Asociaciones entre la red social y la discapacidad al comienzo de la vejez en las ciudades de Madrid y Barcelona en 2005 Translated title: Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Madrid and Barcelona, Spain, in 2005

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          Abstract

          Fundamento: La pérdida de autonomía a edades avanzadas no se asocia únicamente con el envejecimiento sino también con características del entorno físico y social. Investigaciones recientes han demostrado que la red social, la integración social y la participación, actúan como predictores de la discapacidad en la vejez. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el efecto de la red social sobre el nivel de autonomía (en términos de discapacidad instrumental y básica) en etapas iniciales de la vejez. Métodos: La fuente de datos fue la primera oleada de la encuesta "Procesos de Vulnerabilidad en la Vejez", realizada en 2005 a una muestra de 1.250 individuos que, tras la depuración posterior de los datos, resultó en un tamaño muestral final de 1.244 individuos. La población objeto de estudio fue la cohorte entre 70 y 74 años residente en grandes áreas urbanas (Madrid y Barcelona) y no institucionalizada. Se midió discapacidad para el desarrollo de actividades básicas de la vida diaria (ABVD), y actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD). Los aspectos estructurales de las relaciones sociales se midieron a través de la diversidad de red social y la participación, para lo que se construyó un indicador global de diversidad de red social. Resultados: Por cada unidad que disminuye el indicador de diversidad de red, la probabilidad de padecer una discapacidad instrumental frente a no padecer ningún tipo de discapacidad, se multiplica por 0,97 (IC95% 0,95-0,99), y la probabilidad de padecer una discapacidad básica se multiplica por 0,91 (IC95% 0,87-0,94). Conclusiones: Al igual que en otros ámbitos geográficos, existe una relación estadísticamente significativa entre el indicador de diversidad de red social utilizado y la discapacidad en sus dos niveles de gravedad. Por tanto, la diversidad de la red social parece mostrar un efecto protector frente a la discapacidad entre la población urbana al comienzo de la vejez.

          Translated abstract

          Background: The loss of autonomy at advanced ages is not only associated with ageing, but also with the characteristics of the physical and social environment. Recent investigations have shown that social networks, social engagement and participation act like predictors of disability among the elderly. To analyze the effect of social networks on the level of autonomy (instrumental and basic disability) at initial stages of the old age. Methods: The source of data is the first wave of the survey "Processes of Vulnerability among Spanish Elderly", carried out in 2005 to a sample of 1,250 individuals? with the later purification of the data, it was in a size final sample of 1.244 individuals? The population object of study is the cohort aged 70 to 74 years in metropolitan areas (Madrid and Barcelona) and not institutionalized. Disability is measured by the development of basic activities of daily life (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily life (IADL). The structural aspects of the social relationships are measured through the diversity of social networks and participation, for which a global indicator of social network diversity was built. Results: For each unit that diminishes the indicator of social network diversity, the probability of suffering an instrumental disability? in front of not suffering any disability? is multiplied by 0.97 (IC95% 0.95 - 0.99), and the probability of suffering a basic disability is multiplied by 0.91 (IC95% 0.87 - 0.94). Discussion: Like in other geographic scopes, a statistically significant relationship exists between the indicator of diversity of social network used and the disability, in its two levels of graveness. Therefore, the diversity of the social network seems to show a protective effect in front of the disability among the Spanish urban population at the beginning of the age.

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          The disablement process

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            Influence of education and occupation on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease.

            Several cross-sectional studies have found an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and limited educational experience. It has been difficult to establish whether educational experience is a risk factor for AD because educational attainment can influence performance on diagnostic tests. This study was designed to determine whether limited educational level and occupational attainment are risk factors for incident dementia. Cohort incidence study. General community. A total of 593 nondemented individuals aged 60 years or older who were listed in a registry of individuals at risk for dementia in North Manhattan, NY, were identified and followed up. We reexamined subjects 1 to 4 years later with the identical standardized neurological and neuropsychological measures. Incident dementia. We used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age and gender, to estimate the relative risk (RR) of incident dementia associated with low educational and occupational attainment. Of the 593 subjects, 106 became demented; all but five of these met research criteria for AD. The risk of dementia was increased in subjects with either low education (RR, 2.02; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.33 to 3.06) or low lifetime occupational attainment (RR, 2.25; 95% Cl, 1.32 to 3.84). Risk was greatest for subjects with both low education and low life-time occupational attainment (RR, 2.87; 95% Cl, 1.32 to 3.84). The data suggest that increased educational and occupational attainment may reduce the risk of incident AD, either by decreasing ease of clinical detection of AD or by imparting a reserve that delays the onset of clinical manifestations.
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              Social Networks, Social Integration, and Social Engagement Determine Cognitive Decline in Community-Dwelling Spanish Older Adults

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                resp
                Revista Española de Salud Pública
                Rev. Esp. Salud Publica
                Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar social (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
                1135-5727
                2173-9110
                December 2008
                : 82
                : 6
                : 637-651
                Affiliations
                [01] Lleida orgnameUniversidad de Lleida
                [02] orgnameConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
                [03] Barcelona orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Barcelona
                Article
                S1135-57272008000600005 S1135-5727(08)08200600005
                10.1590/S1135-57272008000600005
                1bba4061-5b23-457f-a615-9257f313d527

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 66, Pages: 15
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                SciELO Public Health

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                Social support,Aging,Disabled Persons,Health Status Disparities,Redes sociales,Envejecimiento,Relaciones sociales,Envejecimiento saludable,Discapacidad

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