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      Efficacy of Ambroxol Hydrochloride Combined with Amoxicillin Potassium Clavulanate Combination on Children with Bronchopneumonia and Its Impact on the Level of Inflammatory Factors

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      1 , 2 , 1 ,
      Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of ambroxol hydrochloride combined with amoxicillin potassium clavulanate combination on children with bronchopneumonia and its influence on the level of inflammatory factors.

          Methods

          From January 2018 to June 2019, 100 children with bronchopneumonia admitted to the Pediatric Department of Nanjing Pukou District Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were enrolled as the study subjects. The children were assigned either to an observation group or a control group in a ratio of 1:1 using the random alphabet method. The observation group was treated with ambroxol hydrochloride plus amoxicillin potassium clavulanate combination, and the control group was treated with amoxicillin potassium clavulanate combination. The therapeutic efficiency and serum white blood cells (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF- α) were compared between the two groups.

          Results

          Regarding the effective rate of treatment, the observation group (94%) was observed to be notably higher as compared to the control group (84%). The levels of WBC, CRP, IL-6, and TNF- α were reported to be significantly lower in the two groups after treatment. The WBC, CRP, IL-6, and TNF- α after treatment in the observation group were lower than those in the control group. The time for clinical symptoms to disappear of fever, cough, asthma, and pulmonary rales was all shorter in the observation group.

          Conclusion

          The findings of the present study demonstrate that ambroxol hydrochloride combined with amoxicillin potassium clavulanate combination might be a reliable approach for the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children. It can synergistically relieve inflammation with high safety profiles.

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          Most cited references19

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          Receptor interacting protein kinase-3 determines cellular necrotic response to TNF-alpha.

          Smac mimetics induce apoptosis synergistically with TNF-alpha by triggering the formation of a caspase-8-activating complex containing receptor interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1). Caspase inhibitors block this form of apoptosis in many types of cells. However, in several other cell lines, caspase inhibitors switch the apoptotic response to necrosis. A genome wide siRNA screen revealed another member of the RIP kinase family, RIP3, to be required for necrosis. The expression of RIP3 in different cell lines correlates with their responsiveness to necrosis induction. The kinase activity of RIP3 is essential for necrosis execution. Upon induction of necrosis, RIP3 is recruited to RIPK1 to form a necrosis-inducing complex. Embryonic fibroblasts from RIP3 knockout mice are resistant to necrosis and RIP3 knockout animals are devoid of inflammation inflicted tissue damage in an acute pancreatitis model. These data indicate RIP3 as the determinant for cellular necrosis in response to TNF-alpha family of death-inducing cytokines.
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            New clinical diagnostic criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis/mycosis and its validation

            There are several clinical diagnostic criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). However, these criteria have not been validated in detail, and no criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) are currently available.
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              Urinary Tract Infection in Children

              Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common infection in children. Prompt diag-nosis and appropriate treatment are very important to reduce the morbidity associated with this condition. Objective: To provide an update on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of urinary tract infection in children. Methods: A PubMed search was completed in clinical queries using the key terms “urinary tract infec-tion”, “pyelonephritis” OR “cystitis”. The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews. The search was restricted to English literature and the pediatric age group. Patents were searched using the key terms “urinary tract infection” “pyelonephri-tis” OR “cystitis” from www.google.com/patents, http://espacenet.com, and www.freepatentsonline.com. Results: Escherichia coli accounts for 80 to 90% of UTI in children. The symptoms and signs are non-specific throughout infancy. Unexplained fever is the most common symptom of UTI during the first two years of life. After the second year of life, symptoms and signs of pyelonephritis include fever, chills, rigor, flank pain, and costovertebral angle tenderness. Lower tract symptoms and signs include suprapu-bic pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency, cloudy urine, malodorous urine, and suprapubic tenderness. A urinalysis and urine culture should be performed when UTI is suspected. In the work-up of children with UTI, physicians must judiciously utilize imaging studies to minimize exposure of children to radia-tion. While waiting for the culture results, prompt antibiotic therapy is indicated for symptomatic UTI based on clinical findings and positive urinalysis to eradicate the infection and improve clinical outcome. The choice of antibiotics should take into consideration local data on antibiotic resistance patterns. Recent patents related to the management of UTI are discussed. Conclusion: Currently, a second or third generation cephalosporin and amoxicillin-clavulanate are drugs of choice in the treatment of acute uncomplicated UTI. Parenteral antibiotic therapy is recommended for infants ≤ 2 months and any child who is toxic-looking, hemodynamically unstable, immunocompromised, unable to tolerate oral medication, or not responding to oral medication. A combination of intravenous ampicillin and intravenous/intramuscular gentamycin or a third-generation cephalosporin can be used in those situations. Routine antimicrobial prophylaxis is rarely justified, but continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered for children with frequent febrile UTI.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2022
                19 August 2022
                19 August 2022
                : 2022
                : 2604114
                Affiliations
                1Nanjing Pukou District Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Pediatric Department, Nanjing, China
                2Nanjing Pukou District Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Equipment Section, Nanjing, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Xiaotong Yang

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9211-3824
                Article
                10.1155/2022/2604114
                9417776
                36034961
                1bc4a47f-c740-41f8-a8ca-30a50d8f2a8c
                Copyright © 2022 Xiaoli Zhu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 24 June 2022
                : 6 July 2022
                : 8 July 2022
                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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