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      INTERACTING DISCIPLINES: Cardiac natriuretic peptides and obesity: perspectives from an endocrinologist and a cardiologist


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          Since their discovery in 1981, the cardiac natriuretic peptides (cNP) atrial natriuretic peptide (also referred to as atrial natriuretic factor) and brain natriuretic peptide have been well characterised in terms of their renal and cardiovascular actions. In addition, it has been shown that cNP plasma levels are strong predictors of cardiovascular events and mortality in populations with no apparent heart disease as well as in patients with established cardiac pathology. cNP secretion from the heart is increased by humoral and mechanical stimuli. The clinical significance of cNP plasma levels has been shown to differ in obese and non-obese subjects. Recent lines of evidence suggest important metabolic effects of the cNP system, which has been shown to activate lipolysis, enhance lipid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. Clinically, these properties lead to browning of white adipose tissue and to increased muscular oxidative capacity. In human association studies in patients without heart disease higher cNP concentrations were observed in lean, insulin-sensitive subjects. Highly elevated cNP levels are generally observed in patients with systolic heart failure or high blood pressure, while obese and type-2 diabetics display reduced cNP levels. Together, these observations suggest that the cNP system plays a role in the pathophysiology of metabolic vascular disease. Understanding this role should help define novel principles in the treatment of cardiometabolic disease.

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          ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.

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            Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans.

            Obesity represents a risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. In addition, for any given amount of total body fat, an excess of visceral fat or fat accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscle augments the risk. Conversely, even in obesity, a metabolically benign fat distribution phenotype may exist. In 314 subjects, we measured total body, visceral, and subcutaneous fat with magnetic resonance (MR) tomography and fat in the liver and skeletal muscle with proton MR spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was estimated from oral glucose tolerance test results. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: normal weight (body mass index [BMI] [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], or = 30.0 and placement in the upper quartile of insulin sensitivity), and obese-insulin resistant (IR) (BMI, > or = 30.0 and placement in the lower 3 quartiles of insulin sensitivity). Total body and visceral fat were higher in the overweight and obese groups compared with the normal-weight group (P < .05); however, no differences were observed between the obese groups. In contrast, ectopic fat in skeletal muscle (P < .001) and particularly the liver (4.3% +/- 0.6% vs 9.5% +/- 0.8%) and the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (0.54 +/- 0.02 vs 0.59 +/- 0.01 mm) were lower and insulin sensitivity was higher (17.4 +/- 0.9 vs 7.3 +/- 0.3 arbitrary units) in the obese-IS vs the obese-IR group (P < .05). Unexpectedly, the obese-IS group had almost identical insulin sensitivity and the intima-media thickness was not statistically different compared with the normal-weight group (18.2 +/- 0.9 AU and 0.51 +/- 0.02 mm, respectively). A metabolically benign obesity that is not accompanied by insulin resistance and early atherosclerosis exists in humans. Furthermore, ectopic fat in the liver may be more important than visceral fat in the determination of such a beneficial phenotype in obesity.
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              Cardiac natriuretic peptides act via p38 MAPK to induce the brown fat thermogenic program in mouse and human adipocytes.

              The ability of mammals to resist body fat accumulation is linked to their ability to expand the number and activity of "brown adipocytes" within white fat depots. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) can induce a functional "brown-like" adipocyte phenotype. As cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) and β-AR agonists are similarly potent at stimulating lipolysis in human adipocytes, we investigated whether NPs could induce human and mouse adipocytes to acquire brown adipocyte features, including a capacity for thermogenic energy expenditure mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). In human adipocytes, atrial NP (ANP) and ventricular NP (BNP) activated PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and UCP1 expression, induced mitochondriogenesis, and increased uncoupled and total respiration. At low concentrations, ANP and β-AR agonists additively enhanced expression of brown fat and mitochondrial markers in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. Mice exposed to cold temperatures had increased levels of circulating NPs as well as higher expression of NP signaling receptor and lower expression of the NP clearance receptor (Nprc) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT). NPR-C(-/-) mice had markedly smaller WAT and BAT depots but higher expression of thermogenic genes such as Ucp1. Infusion of BNP into mice robustly increased Ucp1 and Pgc-1α expression in WAT and BAT, with corresponding elevation of respiration and energy expenditure. These results suggest that NPs promote "browning" of white adipocytes to increase energy expenditure, defining the heart as a central regulator of adipose tissue biology.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                26 June 2015
                1 September 2015
                : 4
                : 3
                : R25-R36
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine , Faculty of Medicine, Hospital de Urgencias, National University of Córdoba , Córdoba, X5000, Argentina
                [2 ]Section of Metabolic Vascular Medicine , Medical Clinic III and Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden (PLID), Dresden University School of Medicine , 01307 DresdenGermany
                [3 ]Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences , King's College London, Rayne Institute , London, SE5 9NU, UK
                [4 ]Cardiovascular Endocrinology Laboratory , University of Ottawa Heart Institute , Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to H R Ramos or A L Birkenfeld Email: mbelen93@ 123456gmail.com or andreas.birkenfeld@ 123456uniklinikum-dresden.de
                © 2015 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 8 May 2015
                : 21 May 2015

                natriuretic peptides,anp,anf,bnp,nt-probnp,heart disease,obesity
                natriuretic peptides, anp, anf, bnp, nt-probnp, heart disease, obesity


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