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      COVID-19 and Long-Term Outcomes: Lessons from Other Critical Care Illnesses and Potential Mechanisms


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          Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that is currently causing a pandemic and has been termed coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The elderly or those with preexisting conditions like diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, or kidney dysfunction are more likely to develop severe cases when infected. Patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU have higher mortality than non-ICU patients. Critical illness has consistently posed a challenge not only in terms of mortality but also in regard to long-term outcomes of survivors. Patients who survive acute critical illness including, but not limited to, pulmonary and systemic insults associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, systemic inflammation, and mechanical ventilation, will likely suffer from post-ICU syndrome, a phenomenon of cognitive, psychiatric, and/or physical disability after treatment in the ICU. Post-ICU morbidity and mortality continue to be a cause for concern when considering large-scale studies showing 12-month mortality risks of 11.8–21%. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms, including cytokine release, mitochondrial dysfunction, and even amyloids, may lead to end-organ dysfunction in patients. We hypothesize that COVID-19 infection will lead to post-ICU syndrome via potentially similar mechanisms as other chronic critical illnesses and cause long-term morbidity and mortality in patients. We consider a variety of mechanisms and questions that not only consider the short-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic but its long-term effects that may not yet be imagined.

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          Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

          Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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            Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

            Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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              Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

              In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.

                Author and article information

                Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol
                Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol
                American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
                American Thoracic Society
                29 March 2022
                September 2022
                29 March 2023
                : 67
                : 3
                : 275-283
                [ 1 ]Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia;
                [ 2 ]Department of Biomedical Sciences,
                [ 3 ]Honors College,
                [ 5 ]Department of Pharmacology, and
                [ 6 ]Center for Lung Biology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama; and
                [ 4 ]Divisions of Molecular and Translational Biomedicine and
                [ 7 ]Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
                Author notes
                Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Brant M. Wagener, M.D., Ph.D., Divisions of Critical Care Medicine and Molecular and Translational Biomedicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. E-mail: bwagener@ 123456uabmc.edu .

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Author information
                Copyright © 2022 by the American Thoracic Society

                This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0. For commercial usage and reprints, please e-mail dgern@ 123456thoracic.org .

                : 19 August 2021
                : 28 March 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 74, Pages: 9
                Funded by: National Institute of General Medical Sciences, doi 10.13039/100000057;
                Award ID: R01GM127584
                Funded by: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, doi 10.13039/100000050;
                Award ID: P01HL066299

                sars-cov-2,chronic critical illness,cytokine storm,mitochondrial dysfunction,amyloids


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