The global obesity epidemic has motivated a large number of investigations related to adipose tissue. Within the advances in this area, a variety of factors secreted by adipose tissue and with regulatory activity on caloric intake, energy expenditure, reproduction, locomotor activity, glycidic and lipid metabolism, immune response, and bone physiology have been described. Among these adipocyte hormones, collectively called “adipokines” or “adipocytokines,” leptin (LEP) and adiponectin are addressed in this review. The regulation of adipocytokines is altered in diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (MS) due to the increase in the mass of white adipose tissue. LEP and adiponectin have a broad spectrum of functions in regulating metabolism and are an important link between obesity and MS. Because these adipocytokines have opposite effects on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance, it has been suggested that the combined use of these 2 adipocytokines may work as a better biomarker in the diagnosis of MS than using them individually. In this review, we address the characteristics and main functions of adipocytokines derived from adipose tissue such as adiponectin and LEP, which in the Colombian context could give good guidance for the management of MS, especially in populations of children and adolescents.