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      Improving effect of a probiotic mixture on memory and learning abilities in d-galactose–treated aging mice

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      Journal of Dairy Science

      American Dairy Science Association

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          Most cited references 35

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          Role of Nrf2/HO-1 system in development, oxidative stress response and diseases: an evolutionarily conserved mechanism

          The multifunctional regulator nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is considered not only as a cytoprotective factor regulating the expression of genes coding for anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying proteins, but it is also a powerful modulator of species longevity. The vertebrate Nrf2 belongs to Cap ‘n’ Collar (Cnc) bZIP family of transcription factors and shares a high homology with SKN-1 from Caenorhabditis elegans or CncC found in Drosophila melanogaster. The major characteristics of Nrf2 are to some extent mimicked by Nrf2-dependent genes and their proteins including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which besides removing toxic heme, produces biliverdin, iron ions and carbon monoxide. HO-1 and their products exert beneficial effects through the protection against oxidative injury, regulation of apoptosis, modulation of inflammation as well as contribution to angiogenesis. On the other hand, the disturbances in the proper HO-1 level are associated with the pathogenesis of some age-dependent disorders, including neurodegeneration, cancer or macular degeneration. This review summarizes our knowledge about Nrf2 and HO-1 across different phyla suggesting their conservative role as stress-protective and anti-aging factors.
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            Effects of butyrate on intestinal barrier function in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model of intestinal barrier.

            Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the intestinal lumen may play an important role in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier. However, overproduction/accumulation of SCFA in the bowel may be toxic to the intestinal mucosa and has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). By using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model of intestinal barrier, we report here that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is paradoxical. Butyrate at a low concentration (2 mM) promotes intestinal barrier function as measured by a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and a significant decrease in inulin permeability. Butyrate at a high concentration (8 mM) reduces TER and increases inulin permeability significantly. Butyrate induces apoptosis and reduces the number of viable Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Intestinal barrier function impairment induced by high concentrations of butyrate is most likely related to butyrate-induced cytotoxicity due to apoptosis. We conclude that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is paradoxical; i.e. whereas low concentrations of butyrate may be beneficial in promoting intestinal barrier function, excessive butyrate may induce severe intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and disrupt intestinal barrier.
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              The role of iron in brain ageing and neurodegenerative disorders.

              In the CNS, iron in several proteins is involved in many important processes such as oxygen transportation, oxidative phosphorylation, myelin production, and the synthesis and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Abnormal iron homoeostasis can induce cellular damage through hydroxyl radical production, which can cause the oxidation and modification of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and DNA. During ageing, different iron complexes accumulate in brain regions associated with motor and cognitive impairment. In various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, changes in iron homoeostasis result in altered cellular iron distribution and accumulation. MRI can often identify these changes, thus providing a potential diagnostic biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases. An important avenue to reduce iron accumulation is the use of iron chelators that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, penetrate cells, and reduce excessive iron accumulation, thereby affording neuroprotection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Dairy Science
                Journal of Dairy Science
                American Dairy Science Association
                00220302
                March 2019
                March 2019
                : 102
                : 3
                : 1901-1909
                Article
                10.3168/jds.2018-15811
                © 2019

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