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      Antioxidative stress effects of vitamins C, E, and B 12, and their combination can protect the liver against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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          Abstract

          Background

          Several vitamins, including C, E, and B 12, have been recognized as antioxidants and have shown hepatoprotective effects against the hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen (APAP) overdose. The current investigation aims to study the effect of these vitamins and their combination in protecting the liver from APAP hepatotoxicity in rats.

          Materials and methods

          An in vitro model of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes was utilized for assessing hepatocyte mitochondrial activity conducted by cell proliferation assay (MTT). The isolated hepatocytes were treated with vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B 12 and their combination, with and without further addition of toxic concentrations of APAP. In addition, an in vivo experiment was carried out on Sprague Dawley rats treated intraperitoneally for 8 days with emulsions of the vitamins or their combination prior to injecting them with APAP.

          Results

          In vitro results showed that vitamins C and B and the combination preparation significantly increased the percentage of hepatocyte mitochondrial activity, both with and without the addition of APAP ( P<0.01). The mitochondrial activity in the isolated cultured hepatocytes was further enhanced with APAP addition. In vivo, the vitamins and their combination effectively reduced APAP-induced serum liver enzymes levels, namely ALT, AST, and ALP, and also attenuated oxidative stress and lipids peroxidation confirmed by the results of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and maloondialdehyde.

          Conclusion

          Pretreatment with vitamins C, E, B 12, or their combination was found to be beneficial in preventing in vivo hepatic oxidative stress induced by APAP overdose. Vitamin C on its own showed superior protection against APAP-induced liver injury in rats compared to the other vitamins. The proliferation of APAP-intoxicated liver cells in vitro was highest when protected with the vitamins’ combination.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Ubiquitin signalling in the NF-kappaB pathway.

           Wei Chen,  C. Chen (2005)
          The transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappa enhancer binding protein) controls many processes, including immunity, inflammation and apoptosis. Ubiquitination regulates at least three steps in the NF-kappaB pathway: degradation of IkappaB (inhibitor of NF-kappaB), processing of NF-kappaB precursors, and activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK). Recent studies have revealed several enzymes involved in the ubiquitination and deubiquitination of signalling proteins that mediate IKK activation through a degradation-independent mechanism.
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            Mechanisms of hepatotoxicity.

             H Jaeschke (2002)
            This review addresses recent advances in specific mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Because of its unique metabolism and relationship to the gastrointestinal tract, the liver is an important target of the toxicity of drugs, xenobiotics, and oxidative stress. In cholestatic disease, endogenously generated bile acids produce hepatocellular apoptosis by stimulating Fas translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane where self-aggregation occurs to trigger apoptosis. Kupffer cell activation and neutrophil infiltration extend toxic injury. Kupffer cells release reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines, and chemokines, which induce neutrophil extravasation and activation. The liver expresses many cytochrome P450 isoforms, including ethanol-induced CYP2E1. CYP2E1 generates ROS, activates many toxicologically important substrates, and may be the central pathway by which ethanol causes oxidative stress. In acetaminophen toxicity, nitric oxide (NO) scavenges superoxide to produce peroxynitrite, which then causes protein nitration and tissue injury. In inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout mice, nitration is prevented, but unscavenged superoxide production then causes toxic lipid peroxidation to occur instead. Microvesicular steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cytolytic hepatitis involve mitochondrial dysfunction, including impairment of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, and damage to mitochondrial DNA. Induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is another mechanism causing mitochondrial failure, which can lead to necrosis from ATP depletion or caspase-dependent apoptosis if ATP depletion does not occur fully. Because of such diverse mechanisms, hepatotoxicity remains a major reason for drug withdrawal from pharmaceutical development and clinical use.
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              Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity.

              Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites a reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                18 October 2018
                : 12
                : 3525-3533
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan, nqinna@ 123456uop.edu.jo
                [2 ]University of Petra Pharmaceutical Center (UPPC), University of Petra, Amman, Jordan, nqinna@ 123456uop.edu.jo
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nidal A Qinna, Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, PO Box 961343, 11196 Amman, Jordan, Tel +962 7 9556 5027, Email nqinna@ 123456uop.edu.jo
                Article
                dddt-12-3525
                10.2147/DDDT.S172487
                6201998
                © 2018 Abdulkhaleq et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed

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                Original Research

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