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      Quantitative proteome-level analysis of paulownia witches’ broom disease with methyl methane sulfonate assistance reveals diverse metabolic changes during the infection and recovery processes

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          Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB) disease caused by phytoplasma is a fatal disease that leads to considerable economic losses. Although there are a few reports describing studies of PaWB pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying phytoplasma pathogenicity in Paulownia trees remain uncharacterized. In this study, after building a transcriptome database containing 67,177 sequences, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to quantify and analyze the proteome-level changes among healthy P. fortunei (PF), PaWB-infected P. fortunei (PFI), and PaWB-infected P. fortunei treated with 20 mg L −1 or 60 mg L −1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) (PFI-20 and PFI-60, respectively). A total of 2,358 proteins were identified. We investigated the proteins profiles in PF vs. PFI (infected process) and PFI-20 vs. PFI-60 (recovered process), and further found that many of the MMS-response proteins mapped to “photosynthesis” and “ribosome” pathways. Based on our comparison scheme, 36 PaWB-related proteins were revealed. Among them, 32 proteins were classified into three functional groups: (1) carbohydrate and energy metabolism, (2) protein synthesis and degradation, and (3) stress resistance. We then investigated the PaWB-related proteins involved in the infected and recovered processes, and discovered that carbohydrate and energy metabolism was inhibited, and protein synthesis and degradation decreased, as the plant responded to PaWB. Our observations may be useful for characterizing the proteome-level changes that occur at different stages of PaWB disease. The data generated in this study may serve as a valuable resource for elucidating the pathogenesis of PaWB disease during phytoplasma infection and recovery stages.

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          Signal interactions between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates in the plant hypersensitive disease resistance response.

          Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play key roles in the activation of disease resistance mechanisms both in animals and plants. In animals NO cooperates with ROIs to kill tumor cells and for macrophage killing of bacteria. Such cytotoxic events occur because unregulated NO levels drive a diffusion-limited reaction with O(2)(-) to generate peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), a mediator of cellular injury in many biological systems. Here we show that in soybean cells unregulated NO production at the onset of a pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR) is not sufficient to activate hypersensitive cell death. The HR is triggered only by balanced production of NO and ROIs. Moreover, hypersensitive cell death is activated after interaction of NO not with O(2)- but with H(2)O(2) generated from O(2)(-) by superoxide dismutase. Increasing the level of O(2)(-) reduces NO-mediated toxicity, and ONOO(-) is not a mediator of hypersensitive cell death. During the HR, superoxide dismutase accelerates O(2)(-) dismutation to H(2)O(2) to minimize the loss of NO by reaction with O(2)(-) and to trigger hypersensitive cell death through NO/H(2)O(2) cooperation. However, O(2)(-) rather than H(2)O(2) is the primary ROI signal for pathogen induction of glutathione S-transferase, and the rates of production and dismutation of O(2)(-) generated during the oxidative burst play a crucial role in the modulation and integration of NO/H(2)O(2) signaling in the HR. Thus although plants and animals use a similar repertoire of signals in disease resistance, ROIs and NO are deployed in strikingly different ways to trigger host cell death.
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            Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes.

            During the past decade, research has yielded new knowledge about the plant and insect host ranges, geographical distribution, and phylogenetic relationships of phytoplasmas, and a taxonomic system has emerged in which distinct phytoplasmas are named as separate "Candidatus phytoplasma species." In large part, this progress has resulted from the development and use of molecular methods to detect, identify, and classify phytoplasmas. While these advances continue, research has recently begun on the phytoplasma genome, how phytoplasmas cause disease, the role of mixed phytoplasmal infections in plant diseases, and molecular/genetic phenomena that underlie symptom development in plants. These and other recent advances are laying the foundation for future progress in understanding the mechanisms of phytoplasma pathogenicity, organization of the phytoplasma genome, evolution of new phytoplasma strains and emergence of new diseases, bases of insect transmissibility and specificity of transmission, and plant gene expression in response to phytoplasmal infection, as well as the design of novel approaches to achieve effective control of phytoplasmal diseases.
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              Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects.

              Superkingdom Prokaryota; Kingdom Monera; Domain Bacteria; Phylum Firmicutes (low-G+C, Gram-positive eubacteria); Class Mollicutes; Candidatus (Ca.) genus Phytoplasma. Ca. Phytoplasma comprises approximately 30 distinct clades based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses of approximately 200 phytoplasmas. Phytoplasmas are mostly dependent on insect transmission for their spread and survival. The phytoplasma life cycle involves replication in insects and plants. They infect the insect but are phloem-limited in plants. Members of Ca. Phytoplasma asteris (16SrI group phytoplasmas) are found in 80 monocot and dicot plant species in most parts of the world. Experimentally, they can be transmitted by approximately 30, frequently polyphagous insect species, to 200 diverse plant species. In plants, phytoplasmas induce symptoms that suggest interference with plant development. Typical symptoms include: witches' broom (clustering of branches) of developing tissues; phyllody (retrograde metamorphosis of the floral organs to the condition of leaves); virescence (green coloration of non-green flower parts); bolting (growth of elongated stalks); formation of bunchy fibrous secondary roots; reddening of leaves and stems; generalized yellowing, decline and stunting of plants; and phloem necrosis. Phytoplasmas can be pathogenic to some insect hosts, but generally do not negatively affect the fitness of their major insect vector(s). In fact, phytoplasmas can increase fecundity and survival of insect vectors, and may influence flight behaviour and plant host preference of their insect hosts. The most common practices are the spraying of various insecticides to control insect vectors, and removal of symptomatic plants. Phytoplasma-resistant cultivars are not available for the vast majority of affected crops.

                Author and article information

                PeerJ Inc. (San Francisco, USA )
                3 July 2017
                : 5
                [1 ]Institute of Paulownia, Henan Agricultural University , Zhengzhou, China
                [2 ]College of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University , Zhengzhou, China
                [3 ]Forestry Academy of Henan , Zhengzhou, China
                ©2017 Wang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 30271082
                Award ID: 30571496
                Funded by: Distinguished Talents Foundation of Henan Province of China
                Award ID: 174200510001
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province of China
                Award ID: 162300410158
                This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 30271082, 30571496), the Distinguished Talents Foundation of Henan Province of China (174200510001) and the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province of China (162300410158). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Molecular Biology
                Plant Science


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