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      An integrative taxonomic and phylogenetic approach reveals a new Neotropical swarm-founding social wasp, Pseudopolybia cryptica sp. n. (Vespidae: Polistinae: Epiponini)

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      Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Phenotypic characters are traditionally the main information for species discrimination in taxonomic studies of invertebrates. However, the presence of inter- and intraspecific polymorphism makes it difficult to identify species in many groups such as Neotropical social wasps. Herein, we examined different sources of biological information such as adult morphology, male genitalia, nest architecture, and genetic data applying an integrative taxonomic approach to study pinned museum specimens belonging to the social wasp genus Pseudopolybia de Saussure, 1863. Based on multiple independent lines of evidence, we described a new Neotropical swarm-founding social wasp, Pseudopolybia cryptica sp. n. Moreover, we proposed a phylogenetic hypothesis for Pseudopolybia including this new species. Our taxonomic findings applying an integrative approach reinforce that the social wasp diversity in the Neotropics may be underestimated due to morphological similarity.

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          Most cited references 37

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

            Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%.
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              Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation.

              The taxonomic challenge posed by cryptic species (two or more distinct species classified as a single species) has been recognized for nearly 300 years, but the advent of relatively inexpensive and rapid DNA sequencing has given biologists a new tool for detecting and differentiating morphologically similar species. Here, we synthesize the literature on cryptic and sibling species and discuss trends in their discovery. However, a lack of systematic studies leaves many questions open, such as whether cryptic species are more common in particular habitats, latitudes or taxonomic groups. The discovery of cryptic species is likely to be non-random with regard to taxon and biome and, hence, could have profound implications for evolutionary theory, biogeography and conservation planning.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny
                ASP
                Pensoft Publishers
                1864-8312
                1863-7221
                April 16 2021
                April 16 2021
                : 79
                : 25-35
                Article
                10.3897/asp.79.e64304
                © 2021

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