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      Phylogenetic relationships among the subfamilies of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea) as reconstructed by molecular sequencing

      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Previously, the only published phylogenetic analysis of Dryinidae was a morphological analysis of just 32 characters. Herein, I present the first analysis of molecular sequence data examining the relationships among several of the major subfamilies of Dryinidae. A total of 77 specimens of Dryinidae from seven subfamilies, two specimens of Chrysis (Chrysididae), one specimen of Cleptes (Chrysididae), and one specimen of Sclerogibba (Sclerogibbidae) were examined utilizing molecular sequence data from nuclear 18S and 28S genes and mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb) genes. Dryininae were rendered nonmonophyletic due to the placement of Thaumatodryinus, which was sister to the remainder of Dryininae and Gonatopodinae. To establish monophyly of Dryininae, Thaumatodryininae were resurrected for Thaumatodryinus.

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          SequenceMatrix: concatenation software for the fast assembly of multi-gene datasets with character set and codon information

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            A Gateway for Phylogenetic Analysis Powered by Grid Computing Featuring GARLI 2.0

            We introduce molecularevolution.org, a publicly available gateway for high-throughput, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis powered by grid computing. The gateway features a garli 2.0 web service that enables a user to quickly and easily submit thousands of maximum likelihood tree searches or bootstrap searches that are executed in parallel on distributed computing resources. The garli web service allows one to easily specify partitioned substitution models using a graphical interface, and it performs sophisticated post-processing of phylogenetic results. Although the garli web service has been used by the research community for over three years, here we formally announce the availability of the service, describe its capabilities, highlight new features and recent improvements, and provide details about how the grid system efficiently delivers high-quality phylogenetic results. [garli, gateway, grid computing, maximum likelihood, molecular evolution portal, phylogenetics, web service.]
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              A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

              Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with more than 23,000 species described and over 500,000 species estimated to exist. This is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a molecular analysis of 18S and 28S ribosomal gene regions for 19 families, 72 subfamilies, 343 genera and 649 species. The 56 outgroups are comprised of Ceraphronoidea and most proctotrupomorph families, including Mymarommatidae. Data alignment and the impact of ambiguous regions are explored using a secondary structure analysis and automated (MAFFT) alignments of the core and pairing regions and regions of ambiguous alignment. Both likelihood and parsimony approaches are used to analyze the data. Overall there is no impact of alignment method, and few but substantial differences between likelihood and parsimony approaches. Monophyly of Chalcidoidea and a sister group relationship between Mymaridae and the remaining Chalcidoidea is strongly supported in all analyses. Either Mymarommatoidea or Diaprioidea are the sister group of Chalcidoidea depending on the analysis. Likelihood analyses place Rotoitidae as the sister group of the remaining Chalcidoidea after Mymaridae, whereas parsimony nests them within Chalcidoidea. Some traditional family groups are supported as monophyletic (Agaonidae, Eucharitidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Leucospidae, Mymaridae, Ormyridae, Signiphoridae, Tanaostigmatidae and Trichogrammatidae). Several other families are paraphyletic (Perilampidae) or polyphyletic (Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae and Torymidae). Evolutionary scenarios discussed for Chalcidoidea include the evolution of phytophagy, egg parasitism, sternorrhynchan parasitism, hypermetamorphic development and heteronomy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                September 07 2015
                September 07 2015
                : 45
                : 15-29
                Article
                10.3897/JHR.45.5010
                © 2015
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