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      Oxidative Stress Decreases Klotho Expression in a Mouse Kidney Cell Line

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Defects in klotho gene expression in the mouse result in a syndrome that resembles human aging. We recently identified expression of klotho in a mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cell line for the first time, and in the present study we explored the physiological relevance of the regulation of klotho expression in the presence of oxidant stress injury. Methods: Klotho expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immuocytochemical staining during exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>). Overexpression of the klotho gene was induced by klotho adenoviruses, and the number of apoptotic cells was counted by flowcytometry. Results: Oxidant stress injury by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>dose-dependently reduced klotho expression and diminished klotho staining. There were fewer apoptotic cells among the klotho-transfected cells than among the control cells. Conclusion: Klotho is expressed in cell line mIMCD3, and the klotho gene may be involved in the process of oxidative stress injury and apoptosis in this cell line.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Severely reduced production of klotho in human chronic renal failure kidney.

          We recently identified a novel gene, termed klotho (kl) that is involved in the development of a syndrome in mice resembling human aging. A defect of the kl gene expression in mice leads to multiple disorders including arteriosclerosis, osteoporosis, ectopic calcification, and skin atrophy together with short life-span and infertility. Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), develop multiple complications that are reminiscent of phenotypes observed in kl mutant mice. Furthermore, the kl gene is mainly expressed in kidney and brain. These evidences above suggest the possible involvement of Klotho function in the complications arising in CRF patients. To investigate the above possibility, we examined the kidneys of 10 clinically or histologically diagnosed CRF cases. The level of kl gene expression was measured by utilizing RNase protection assay. The expression of Klotho protein was assayed by utilizing Western blot analysis and by immunohistochemistry. The levels of kl mRNA expression were greatly reduced in all CRF kidneys. Moreover, the production of Klotho protein was also severely reduced in all CRF kidneys. These results suggest that the decrease in kl gene expression in CRF patients may underlie the deteriorating process of multiple complications in the CRF patients. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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            Structure of the mouse klotho gene and its two transcripts encoding membrane and secreted protein.

            We previously established a novel mouse model for human aging and identified the genetic foundation responsible for it. A defect in expression of a novel gene, termed klotho (kl), leads to a syndrome resembling human aging in mice. The kl gene encodes a single-pass membrane protein whose extracellular domain carries homology to beta-glucosidases. In this report, we present the entire mouse kl gene organization. The mouse kl gene spans about 50 kilobases and consists of five exons. The promoter region lacks a TATA-box and contains four potential binding sites for SP1. We further show that two kl gene transcripts encoding membrane or secreted protein are generated through alternative transcriptional termination. These findings provide fundamental information for further study of the kl gene which may regulate aging in vivo.
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              In vivo klotho gene transfer ameliorates angiotensin II-induced renal damage.

              The klotho gene, originally identified by insertional mutagenesis in mice, suppresses the expression of multiple aging-associated phenotypes. This gene is predominantly expressed in the kidney. Recent studies have shown that expression of renal klotho gene is regulated in animal models of metabolic diseases and in humans with chronic renal failure. However, little is known about the mechanisms and the physiological relevance of the regulation of the expression of the klotho gene in the kidney in some diseased conditions. In the present study, we first investigated the role of angiotensin II in the regulation of renal klotho gene expression. Long-term infusion of angiotensin II downregulated renal klotho gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. This angiotensin II-induced renal klotho downregulation was an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent but pressor-independent event. Adenovirus harboring mouse klotho gene (ad-klotho, 3.3x10(10) plaque forming units) was also intravenously administered immediately before starting angiotensin II infusion in some rats. This resulted in a robust induction of Klotho protein in the liver at day 4, which was still detectable 14 days after the gene transfer. Ad-klotho gene transfer, but not ad-lacZ gene transfer, caused an improvement of creatinine clearance, decrease in urinary protein excretion, and amelioration of histologically demonstrated tubulointerstitial damage induced by angiotensin II administration. Our data suggest that downregulation of the renal klotho gene may have an aggravative role in the development of renal damage induced by angiotensin II, and that induction of the klotho gene may have therapeutic possibilities in treating angiotensin II-induced end organ damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2005
                October 2005
                22 June 2005
                : 101
                : 2
                : e67-e74
                Affiliations
                Departments of aMedicine IV, and bBlood Purification, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
                Article
                86500 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;101:e67–e74
                10.1159/000086500
                15976510
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 25, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86500
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