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      Impact of smoking status on survival after cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma

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          Epidemiologic and socioeconomic burden of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC): a literature review.

          Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, initially has an asymptomatic clinical course; 25-30% of patients present with metastatic disease at time of diagnosis. Worldwide incidence and mortality rates are rising at a rate of approximately 2-3% per decade. Metastatic RCC (mRCC) is one of the most treatment-resistant malignancies; outcomes are generally poor and median survival after diagnosis is less than one year. Surgery and chemotherapy have limited or no effect, leaving mRCC patients underserved in the realm of cancer treatment. As the world's population ages and the prevalence of risk factors (obesity, hypertension) increases, the burden of mRCC is predicted to increase significantly. With a shift in treatment of mRCC to novel therapies, such as molecularly targeted therapies (MTTs) (e.g., sorafenib and sunitinib), clinicians, payers, and other healthcare decision-makers must re-evaluate the optimal role for new treatments. Timely understanding of the burden of mRCC on individuals and society clearly is needed at this juncture. Using a comprehensive literature review, we assessed the epidemiologic, economic, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) burdens of mRCC. The annual incidence of mRCC in major European countries, the US, and Japan ranges from 1500 to 8600 cases. However, prevalence data were lacking. The estimated economic burden of mRCC is large; $107-$556 million (2006 USD) in the US and $446 million-$1.6 billion (2006 USD) collectively in select countries worldwide. MTTs have potential to reduce the burden of mRCC and provide substantial value beyond their clinical effectiveness.
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            Cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cancer: a combined analysis.

            Metastatic renal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. Recent advances in immunotherapy for this problem have rekindled interest in cytoreductive nephrectomy. We report a combined analysis of 2 prospective randomized trials that used an identical study protocol. A total of 331 patients were randomized to 2 identical protocols comparing cytoreductive nephrectomy plus interferon alpha-2b vs interferon alpha-2b alone in patients with metastatic renal cancer, in whom the primary tumor was present and believed to be resectable. The primary end point for each trial was overall survival with a secondary end point of the response rate. Patients were stratified at pre-randomization by performance status (0 or 1), site of metastases (lung only vs other) and disease measurability. All results were analyzed by intent to treat criteria. Assuming a median survival of 1 year for interferon only, the Southwest Oncology Group trial was designed to detect a 50% improvement in median survival duration and a 15% improvement in response rate with a power of 0.85. The European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer accrued an additional 80 patients in that study. The combined analysis of these 2 trials yielded a median survival of 13.6 months for nephrectomy plus interferon vs 7.8 months for interferon alone. This difference represents a 31% decrease in the risk of death (p = 0.002). There was no evidence of a difference in the size of the treatment effect according to pre-randomization stratification factors. Cytoreductive nephrectomy appears to improve significantly overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cancer treated with interferon immunotherapy independent of patient performance status, the site of metastases and the presence of measurable disease. Although it is highly statistically significant, the overall survival advantage is only 5.8 months for the entire group. These data emphasize the need to determine if this survival advantage can be further improved using more aggressive immunotherapy or other novel agents in the setting of cytoreductive nephrectomy.
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              Prognostic factors and predictive models in renal cell carcinoma: a contemporary review.

              The natural history of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is highly unpredictable. Small renal masses may be accompanied by metastatic disease. Conversely, patients with locally advanced disease may enjoy long-term disease-free survival. To review the status of prognostic factors in RCC. A literature review was performed using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for articles published as of February 15, 2010. Electronic articles published ahead of print were also considered. Search was limited to the English language. Search was conducted using the following keywords: renal cell carcinoma, molecular, tissue, markers, blood, urine, progression, prognosis, risk factor, and survival. Studies were selected according to the relevance of the study, the number of patients included, originality, actuality, and clinical applicability of the results. Four areas of prediction were examined: (1) new RCC diagnostics, (2) RCC grade and stage at diagnosis, (3) disease progression, and (4) disease-specific mortality. All identified reports represented either case series or controlled studies. Although a large number of markers were identified, only a few were validated. Several prognostic factors were integrated in predictive or prognostic models. Several prognostic factors can help discriminate between favourable and unfavourable RCC phenotypes. Of those, several clinical, pathologic, and biologic markers have been tested and validated, and they are used in predictive and prognostic models. Nonetheless, the search continues, especially for informative markers predicting the response to targeted therapies. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                World Journal of Urology
                World J Urol
                Springer Nature
                0724-4983
                1433-8726
                October 2016
                February 15 2016
                October 2016
                : 34
                : 10
                : 1411-1419
                Article
                10.1007/s00345-016-1767-9
                26879416
                1bf94ddf-bafe-4e8c-97e1-282ca9104466
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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