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Leaf area index of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop under three nitrogen fertilization treatments Translated title: Índice de área foliar del cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) bajo tres tratamientos de fertilización nitrogenada

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      Abstract

      ABSTRACT Nitrogen fertilization has considerable effects on growth and yield of potato crop. Leaf expansion is one of the most important growth parameters that can be used to optimize nitrogen fertilization management in agroecological practices. We evaluated the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the leaf area index (LAI) of potato crop during different phenological stages by two different methods. Experimental plots were established in a randomized block design with the following treatments: no nitrogen supply (0-N), 133 kg N ha-1 (133-N), and 400 kg N ha-1 (400-N), using the Granola variety, at the Andes region, Merida city, Venezuela. We measured leaf area at the main phenological stages of the crop using a plant canopy analyzer. LAI showed significant differences among treatments and phenological stages, except during the emergence stage. The maximum LAI values were obtained 55 days after emergence: 400-N (1.42±0.16) > 133-N (0.92±0.21) > 0-N (0.34±0.08). Nitrogen fertilization had a significant effect on the development of LAI in potato crop along its different phenological stages.

      Translated abstract

      RESUMEN La nutrición con nitrógeno tiene efectos considerables sobre la dinámica de crecimiento y producción del cultivo de papa, siendo el desarrollo del área foliar uno de los parámetros de crecimiento más importantes para optimizar el manejo de recursos agroecológicos. Se evaluó el efecto de la nutrición de nitrógeno sobre el índice de área foliar (IAF) a través de dos métodos durante diferentes fases fenológicas del cultivo. Se establecieron parcelas experimentales bajo un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres replicas por tratamiento de fertilización; sin nitrógeno (0-N), 133 kg N ha-1 (133-N), y 400 kg N ha-1 (400-N), utilizando la variedad Granola en la región Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. En las principales fases fenológicas del cultivo se midió el área foliar con un analizador de dosel. El IAF presentó diferencias significativas entre tratamientos y fases fenológicas del cultivo, excepto durante la etapa de emergencia. Los máximos valores de IAF fueron alcanzados cerca de los 55 días después de la emergencia, 400-N (1,42 0,16) > 133-N (0,92±0,21) > 0-N (0,34±0,08). Se demostró que la fertilización nitrogenada tuvo un efecto significativo sobre el desarrollo del índice de área foliar del cultivo de papa durante diferentes fases de fenológicas.

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      Most cited references 15

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      N uptake and distribution in crops: an agronomical and ecophysiological perspective.

       F Gastal,  H Lemaire (2002)
      The rate of N uptake of crops is highly variable during crop development and between years and sites. However, under ample soil N availability, crop N accumulation is highly related to crop growth rate and to biomass accumulation. Critical N concentration has been defined as the minimum N concentration which allows maximum growth rate. Critical N concentration declines during crop growth. The relationship between critical N concentration and biomass accumulation over the growth period of a crop is broadly similar within major C(3) and C(4) cultivated species. Therefore, the critical N concentration concept is widely used in agronomy as the basis of the diagnosis of crop N status, and allows discrimination between situations of sub-optimal and supra-optimal N supply. The relationship between N and biomass accumulation in crops, relies on the interregulation of multiple crop physiological processes. Among these processes, N uptake, crop C assimilation and thus growth rate, and C and N allocation between organs and between plants, play a particular role. Under sub-optimal N supply, N uptake of the crop depends on soil mineral N availability and distribution, and on root distribution. Under ample N supply, N uptake largely depends on growth rate via internal plant regulation. Carbon assimilation of the crop is related to crop N through the distribution of N between mature leaves with consequences for leaf and canopy photosynthesis. However, although less commonly emphasized, carbon assimilation of the crop also depends on crop N through leaf area development. Therefore, crop growth rate fundamentally relies on the balance of N allocation between growing and mature leaves. Nitrogen uptake and distribution also depends on C allocation between organs and N composition of these organs. Within shoots, allocation of C to stems generally increases in relation to C allocation to the leaves over the crop growth period. Allocation of C and N between shoots and roots also changes to a large extent in relation to soil N and/or crop N. These alterations in C and N allocation between plant organs have implications, together with soil availability and carbon assimilation, on N uptake and distribution in crops. Therefore, N uptake and distribution in plants and crops involves many aspects of growth and development. Regulation of nitrogen assimilation needs to be considered in the context of these interregulatory processes.
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        Potatoes for Sustainable Global Food Security

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          Uso del Índice de Área Foliar y del Porcentaje de Cobertura del Suelo Para Estimar la Radiación Interceptada en Papa

          Debido a que no existen antecedentes en el cinturón verde de Córdoba, Argentina, del uso de aparatos para medir el índice de área foliar (IAF) a través de la intercepción lumínica en el cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.), se desarrolló un trabajo con estos objetivos: i) evaluar el empleo y capacidad de un instrumento óptico para determinar el IAF; ii) verificar la utilización del IAF y de la cobertura del suelo como mediciones alternativas del desarrollo de la parte aérea del cultivo, a fin de estimar la fracción de radiación interceptada (fAPAR). Las mediciones se realizaron durante la campaña de papa semitardía del año 2005 (del 4 de febrero al 1 de junio), en un ensayo de densidad de plantación ubicado próximo a la ciudad de Córdoba (31°30’ lat. Sur, 64°08’ long. Oeste, 402 m.s.n.m.), que consistió de tres tratamientos, en pl m-2: 6,0 ± 0,6 (TDC); 3,9 ± 0,2 (TDB) y 7,9 ± 0,7 (TDA). El IAF se midió por medio de un interceptómetro óptico y el porcentaje de cobertura del suelo (%C) a partir de fotografías digitales. Los valores de IAF calculados con las mediciones del interceptómetro se contrastaron con determinaciones fotogramétricas, obteniendo una correlación aceptable (R² = 0,80; P < 0,01) entre ambos. La relación entre IAF y fAPAR se mantuvo uniforme, tanto en el sentido de comparar las densidades de plantación, como así también durante diferentes momentos del ciclo. Hasta que el cultivo alcanza cobertura máxima, la relación entre %C y fAPAR es lineal, con un coeficiente de ajuste altamente significativo (R² = 0,93; P < 0,01), si bien se aparta ligeramente de la relación 1:1.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Merida orgnameUniversidad de los Andes orgdiv1Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Ecológicas (ICAE) Venezuela
            Merida orgnameUniversidad de los Andes orgdiv1Departamento de Química Colombia
            Viçosa Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Viçosa Brazil pedro.villa@ 123456ufv.br
            Merida orgnameFundación para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad Venezuela
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            agc
            Agronomía Colombiana
            Agron. colomb.
            Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Agronomía (Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia )
            0120-9965
            August 2017
            : 35
            : 2
            : 171-175
            S0120-99652017000200171 10.15446/agron.colomb.v35n2.62110

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 19, Pages: 5
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            Product Information: SciELO Colombia

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