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      Saturated Salt Solution Method: A Useful Cadaver Embalming for Surgical Skills Training

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          This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST).

          SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved.

          Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers.

          The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods.

          Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

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          Most cited references 44

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          [The preservation of the whole corpse with natural color].

          An especially low-odor embalming technique was developed over a 30-years-period using a total of 977 complete cadavers, numerous cadavers after autopsy, and in vitro series of fresh beef. The color, consistency, and transparency of the tissue were very well preserved. The technique met high standards of preservation without releasing harmful substances into the environment. Concentrations of formaldehyde in room air remained under the limit of detection by Dräger capillaries. The efficacy for disinfection of the method was confirmed by bacteriologic tests. None of the cadavers or samples developed molds.
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            Ultrasound-guided paravertebral puncture and placement of catheters in human cadavers: an imaging study.

            During paravertebral block, the anterolateral limit of the paravertebral space, which consists of the pleura, should preferably not be perforated. Also it is possible that, during the block, the constant superior costotransverse ligament can be missed in the loss-of-resistance technique. We therefore aimed to develop a new technique for an ultrasound-guided puncture of the paravertebral space. We performed 20 punctures and catheter placements in 10 human cadavers. A sonographic view showing the pleura and the superior costotransverse ligament was obtained with a slightly oblique scan using a curved array transducer. After inline approach, injection of 10 ml normal saline confirmed the correct position of the needle tip, distended the space, and enabled catheter insertion. The spread of contrast dye injected through the catheters was assessed by CT scans. The superior costotransverse ligament and the paravertebral space were easy to identify. The needle tip reached the paravertebral space without problems under visualization. In contrast, the introduction of the catheter was difficult. The CT scan revealed a correct paravertebral spread of contrast in 11 cases. Out of the remaining, one catheter was found in the pleural space, in six cases there was an epidural, and in two cases there was a prevertebral spread of contrast dye. We successfully developed a technique for an accurate ultrasound-guided puncture of the paravertebral space. We also showed that when a catheter is introduced through the needle with the tip lying in the paravertebral space, there is a high probability of catheter misplacement into the epidural, mediastinal, or pleural spaces.
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              Human body preservation - old and new techniques.

               Erich Brenner (2014)
              This review deals with the art of (anatomical) embalming. The first part contains a brief historical review of the history of embalming, starting with ancient cultures such as the Egyptians and the lesser known Chinchorro culture, then going down the centuries and describing the anatomical techniques developed over the last two centuries. The second part deals in detail with the chemicals used for embalming purposes. The third part deals with several approaches to evaluating embalming methods, their suitability for biomechanical testing, antimicrobial properties, histological appearance, and usability. The fourth and final part analyze the European Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC) in the light of embalming. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

                Author and article information

                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                December 2014
                12 December 2014
                : 93
                : 27
                From the Department of Anatomy (SH, SK, TS, NQ, NH, SH, MI); Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine (HH, JO, KK, TS, TY); Department of Anesthesiology (TN, HF, KO), Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Anatomy (MN), Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan; Department of Diagnostic Radiology/Division of Ultrasound (AK), Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Primary Care and Emergency Medicine (NS), Graduate School of Medicine and University School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; Advanced Disaster Medical and Emergency Critical Care Center (TF), Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata, Japan; Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine (HT), Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; Shock and Trauma Center (KM), Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, Nippon Medical School, Chiba, Japan; Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine (TA), Nihon University School of Medicine Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (MI), Niigata City General Hospital, Niigata, Japan; Department of Colorectal Surgery (YN), National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan; Department of Plastic Surgery (JA), University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; and Division of Gastroenterological and General Surgery (NM), Asahikawa Medical University School of Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shogo Hayashi, Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1, Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan (e-mail: shogo@ ).
                Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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