+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Automated Urinal-Based Specific Gravity Measurement Device for Real-Time Hydration Monitoring in Male Athletes


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Acute and chronic hydration status is important for athlete safety and performance and is frequently measured by sports scientists and performance staff in team environments via urinalysis. However, the time required for urine collection, staff testing, and reporting often delays immediate reporting and personalized nutrition insight in situations of acute hydration management before training or competition. Furthermore, the burdensome urine collection and testing process often renders chronic hydration monitoring sporadic or non-existent in real-world settings. An automated urinalysis device (InFlow) was developed to measure specific gravity, an index of hydration status, in real-time during urination. The device was strongly correlated to optical refractometry with a mean absolute error of 0.0029 (±0.0021). Our results show this device provides a novel and useful approach for real-time hydration status via urinalysis for male athletes in team environments with high testing frequency demands.

          Related collections

          Most cited references35

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental evaluation tool in clinical medicine.

          The clinical performance of a laboratory test can be described in terms of diagnostic accuracy, or the ability to correctly classify subjects into clinically relevant subgroups. Diagnostic accuracy refers to the quality of the information provided by the classification device and should be distinguished from the usefulness, or actual practical value, of the information. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots provide a pure index of accuracy by demonstrating the limits of a test's ability to discriminate between alternative states of health over the complete spectrum of operating conditions. Furthermore, ROC plots occupy a central or unifying position in the process of assessing and using diagnostic tools. Once the plot is generated, a user can readily go on to many other activities such as performing quantitative ROC analysis and comparisons of tests, using likelihood ratio to revise the probability of disease in individual subjects, selecting decision thresholds, using logistic-regression analysis, using discriminant-function analysis, or incorporating the tool into a clinical strategy by using decision analysis.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Understanding Bland Altman analysis

            In a contemporary clinical laboratory it is very common to have to assess the agreement between two quantitative methods of measurement. The correct statistical approach to assess this degree of agreement is not obvious. Correlation and regression studies are frequently proposed. However, correlation studies the relationship between one variable and another, not the differences, and it is not recommended as a method for assessing the comparability between methods.
In 1983 Altman and Bland (B&A) proposed an alternative analysis, based on the quantification of the agreement between two quantitative measurements by studying the mean difference and constructing limits of agreement.
The B&A plot analysis is a simple way to evaluate a bias between the mean differences, and to estimate an agreement interval, within which 95% of the differences of the second method, compared to the first one, fall. Data can be analyzed both as unit differences plot and as percentage differences plot.
The B&A plot method only defines the intervals of agreements, it does not say whether those limits are acceptable or not. Acceptable limits must be defined a priori, based on clinical necessity, biological considerations or other goals.
The aim of this article is to provide guidance on the use and interpretation of Bland Altman analysis in method comparison studies.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement.

              This Position Stand provides guidance on fluid replacement to sustain appropriate hydration of individuals performing physical activity. The goal of prehydrating is to start the activity euhydrated and with normal plasma electrolyte levels. Prehydrating with beverages, in addition to normal meals and fluid intake, should be initiated when needed at least several hours before the activity to enable fluid absorption and allow urine output to return to normal levels. The goal of drinking during exercise is to prevent excessive (>2% body weight loss from water deficit) dehydration and excessive changes in electrolyte balance to avert compromised performance. Because there is considerable variability in sweating rates and sweat electrolyte content between individuals, customized fluid replacement programs are recommended. Individual sweat rates can be estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise. During exercise, consuming beverages containing electrolytes and carbohydrates can provide benefits over water alone under certain circumstances. After exercise, the goal is to replace any fluid electrolyte deficit. The speed with which rehydration is needed and the magnitude of fluid electrolyte deficits will determine if an aggressive replacement program is merited.

                Author and article information

                Front Sports Act Living
                Front Sports Act Living
                Front. Sports Act. Living
                Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                16 June 2022
                : 4
                Intake Health , Raleigh, NC, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Cain Craig Truman Clark, Coventry University, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Marijn M. Speeckaert, Ghent University Hospital, Belgium; Jakub Chycki, Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland

                *Correspondence: Brian F. Bender brian@ 123456intake.health

                This article was submitted to Sports Science, Technology and Engineering, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sports and Active Living

                Copyright © 2022 Bender, Johnson, Berry, Frazier and Bender.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 2, References: 38, Pages: 7, Words: 5144
                Funded by: National Science Foundation, doi 10.13039/100000001;
                Sports and Active Living
                Brief Research Report

                urinalysis,hydration,sports science,sports technology,wellness,safety,athletic performance


                Comment on this article