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      The Effectiveness and Safety of Intravenous Dexmedetomidine of Different Concentrations Combined with Butorphanol for Post-Caesarean Section Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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          The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of intravenous dexmedetomidine of different concentrations and to evaluate its maternal and neonatal safety when combined with butorphanol in parturients undergoing cesarean section.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 114 parturients between 24 and 43 years of age, with singleton pregnancy who underwent elective cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, were randomly allocated to four groups: group C received 0.9% sodium chloride after delivery, followed by butorphanol (3 μg·kg −1·h −1); patients in groups D1, D2, and D3 received 0.5 μg·kg −1·h −1 dexmedetomidine after delivery, followed by butorphanol (3 μg·kg −1·h −1) combined with dexmedetomidine 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 μg·kg −1·h −1, respectively. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 6 h after delivery when patients were at rest. Secondary outcome measures included VAS after delivery when patients were on movement and uterine cramping, Ramsay sedation scale (RSS), relative infant dose (RID) of dexmedetomidine, satisfaction with analgesia after surgery and symptoms of CNS depression in neonates.


          There were no significant differences in patient characteristics among the groups ( P > 0.05). The VAS at all timepoints after delivery in groups D2 and D3 were significantly lower than in groups C and D1 ( P < 0.001). RSS scores were clearly higher in group D3 than in the other three groups at 6 h and 12 h ( P < 0.0001). RID in groups D1, D2, and D3 was 0.171%, 0.197%, and 0.370%, respectively. Compared with group D1, RID was higher in group D3 ( P = 0.0079). Degree of satisfaction with analgesia was higher in groups D2 and D3 ( P < 0.005).


          Continuous intravenous infusion of 0.05 μg·kg −1·h −1 dexmedetomidine combined with 3 μg·kg −1·h −1 butorphanol could be safely applied in healthy parturients with satisfactory analgesia after cesarean section without changes in sedation.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Controlled Sedation with Alphaxalone-Alphadolone

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            Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam or propofol for sedation during prolonged mechanical ventilation: two randomized controlled trials.

            Long-term sedation with midazolam or propofol in intensive care units (ICUs) has serious adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine, an α(2)-agonist available for ICU sedation, may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and enhance patient comfort. To determine the efficacy of dexmedetomidine vs midazolam or propofol (preferred usual care) in maintaining sedation; reducing duration of mechanical ventilation; and improving patients' interaction with nursing care. Two phase 3 multicenter, randomized, double-blind trials carried out from 2007 to 2010. The MIDEX trial compared midazolam with dexmedetomidine in ICUs of 44 centers in 9 European countries; the PRODEX trial compared propofol with dexmedetomidine in 31 centers in 6 European countries and 2 centers in Russia. Included were adult ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation who needed light to moderate sedation for more than 24 hours (midazolam, n = 251, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 249; propofol, n = 247, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 251). Sedation with dexmedetomidine, midazolam, or propofol; daily sedation stops; and spontaneous breathing trials. For each trial, we tested whether dexmedetomidine was noninferior to control with respect to proportion of time at target sedation level (measured by Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale) and superior to control with respect to duration of mechanical ventilation. Secondary end points were patients' ability to communicate pain (measured using a visual analogue scale [VAS]) and length of ICU stay. Time at target sedation was analyzed in per-protocol population (midazolam, n = 233, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 227; propofol, n = 214, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 223). Dexmedetomidine/midazolam ratio in time at target sedation was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.97-1.18) and dexmedetomidine/propofol, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92-1.08). Median duration of mechanical ventilation appeared shorter with dexmedetomidine (123 hours [IQR, 67-337]) vs midazolam (164 hours [IQR, 92-380]; P = .03) but not with dexmedetomidine (97 hours [IQR, 45-257]) vs propofol (118 hours [IQR, 48-327]; P = .24). Patients' interaction (measured using VAS) was improved with dexmedetomidine (estimated score difference vs midazolam, 19.7 [95% CI, 15.2-24.2]; P < .001; and vs propofol, 11.2 [95% CI, 6.4-15.9]; P < .001). Length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality were similar. Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam patients had more hypotension (51/247 [20.6%] vs 29/250 [11.6%]; P = .007) and bradycardia (35/247 [14.2%] vs 13/250 [5.2%]; P < .001). Among ICU patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation, dexmedetomidine was not inferior to midazolam and propofol in maintaining light to moderate sedation. Dexmedetomidine reduced duration of mechanical ventilation compared with midazolam and improved patients' ability to communicate pain compared with midazolam and propofol. More adverse effects were associated with dexmedetomidine. clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00481312, NCT00479661.
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              The stress response to trauma and surgery


                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                18 February 2021
                : 15
                : 689-698
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University , Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mei Gao Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University , No. 300, Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-25-68303569 Email drgaomei@njmu.edu.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2021 Liu et al.

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 40, Pages: 10
                Funded by: funding;
                This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
                Original Research


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