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      Novel species of Cladosporium from environmental sources in Spain

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          Abstract

          Cladosporium is a monophyletic genus in Cladosporiaceae ( Cladosporiales , Dothideomycetes ) whose species are mainly found as saprobes and endophytes, but it also includes fungi pathogenic for plants, animals and human. Species identification is currently based on three genetic markers, viz., the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the rDNA, and partial fragments of actin ( act) and the translation elongation factor 1-α ( tef1) genes. Using this phylogenetic approach and from morphological differences, we have recognized six new species originating from soil, herbivore dung and plant material collected at different Spanish locations. They are proposed as Cladosporium caprifimosum , C. coprophilum , C. fuscoviride and C. lentulum belonging in the C. cladosporioides species complex, and C. pseudotenellum and C. submersum belonging in the C. herbarum species complex. This study revealed that herbivore dung represented a reservoir of novel lineages in the genus Cladosporium .

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          MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

           Robert Edgar (2004)
          We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.
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            MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

            We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

              Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MycoKeys
                11
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:C004A564-9D6A-5F9F-B058-6A3815DFE9C3
                MycoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4057
                1314-4049
                2021
                05 January 2021
                : 77
                : 1-25
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Unitat de Micologia, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut and IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201, Reus, Tarragona, Spain Universitat Rovira i Virgili Reus Spain
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Josepa Gené ( josepa.gene@ 123456urv.cat )

                Academic editor: T. Lumbsch

                Article
                60862
                10.3897/mycokeys.77.60862
                7803722
                Isabel Iturrieta-González, Dania García, Josepa Gené

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Anamorphic Fungi
                Ascomycota
                Phylogeny
                Taxonomy
                Europe

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