Background/Aims: Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) are important pathogenetic factors underlying diabetic complications. Recently, a highly reliable new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for these metabolites has been established. We used the assay to correlate AGEs in serum with renal function categories and histopathology in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Type 2 diabetic patients (n = 71) and healthy control subjects (n = 35) were studied. The diabetic subjects were divided into two groups: normal renal function and chronic renal failure not requiring dialysis. In renal biopsy specimens from 22 diabetic subjects with a normal renal function, the severity of glomerular lesions was assessed morphometrically in terms of the ratio of the area of periodic acid-Schiff stained mesangium to total glomerular area. Results: The serum AGE concentrations were higher in both undialyzed diabetic groups, especially in those with renal failure, than in the controls. The serum AGE concentrations increased with the severity of glomerular lesions (morphometric ratio under 15%, 2.85 ± 0.73 mU/ml; 15–24%, 4.01 ± 0.71 mU/ml; 25% or more, 5.12 ± 0.64 mU/ml). Conclusions: The serum AGE levels measured by the new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reflected the severity of glomerulopathy, and, therefore, it may be a clinically useful tool for assessing diabetic renal complications.