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      The bacterial aetiology of adult community-acquired pneumonia in Asia: a systematic review

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          Abstract

          Background

          Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of adult mortality in Asia. Appropriate empirical treatment depends on knowledge of the pathogens commonly responsible. However, assessing the aetiological significance of identified organisms is often difficult, particularly with sputum isolates that might represent contamination with oropharyngeal flora.

          Methods

          A systematic review of all adult CAP aetiology studies from Asia, excluding the Middle East, published in English between 1 January 1990 and 1 March 2012 was conducted. Forty-eight studies reporting on 10 423 patients were included, representing data from China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Data from large parts of Asia were unavailable and there was substantial heterogeneity in methodology.

          Results

          As in western studies, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella spp. and Haemophilus influenzae were all significant pathogens. However, compared with western studies, S. pneumoniae was of less relative importance. Gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were more important, and in northeast Thailand Burkholderia pseudomallei was a major pathogen.

          Conclusion

          These data have major implications for diagnostic strategies and empirical treatment. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics targeting S. pneumoniae may be inappropriate in many Asian settings, and agents active against TB may lead to partial response and delayed TB diagnosis.

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          Most cited references 88

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          Antibiotic resistance-the need for global solutions.

          The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex and include human behaviour at many levels of society; the consequences affect everybody in the world. Similarities with climate change are evident. Many efforts have been made to describe the many different facets of antibiotic resistance and the interventions needed to meet the challenge. However, coordinated action is largely absent, especially at the political level, both nationally and internationally. Antibiotics paved the way for unprecedented medical and societal developments, and are today indispensible in all health systems. Achievements in modern medicine, such as major surgery, organ transplantation, treatment of preterm babies, and cancer chemotherapy, which we today take for granted, would not be possible without access to effective treatment for bacterial infections. Within just a few years, we might be faced with dire setbacks, medically, socially, and economically, unless real and unprecedented global coordinated actions are immediately taken. Here, we describe the global situation of antibiotic resistance, its major causes and consequences, and identify key areas in which action is urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study

            Summary Background Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to carbapenem conferred by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are potentially a major global health problem. We investigated the prevalence of NDM-1, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in India, Pakistan, and the UK. Methods Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied from two major centres in India—Chennai (south India), Haryana (north India)—and those referred to the UK's national reference laboratory. Antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed, and the presence of the carbapenem resistance gene bla NDM-1 was established by PCR. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-restricted genomic DNA. Plasmids were analysed by S1 nuclease digestion and PCR typing. Case data for UK patients were reviewed for evidence of travel and recent admission to hospitals in India or Pakistan. Findings We identified 44 isolates with NDM-1 in Chennai, 26 in Haryana, 37 in the UK, and 73 in other sites in India and Pakistan. NDM-1 was mostly found among Escherichia coli (36) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (111), which were highly resistant to all antibiotics except to tigecycline and colistin. K pneumoniae isolates from Haryana were clonal but NDM-1 producers from the UK and Chennai were clonally diverse. Most isolates carried the NDM-1 gene on plasmids: those from UK and Chennai were readily transferable whereas those from Haryana were not conjugative. Many of the UK NDM-1 positive patients had travelled to India or Pakistan within the past year, or had links with these countries. Interpretation The potential of NDM-1 to be a worldwide public health problem is great, and co-ordinated international surveillance is needed. Funding European Union, Wellcome Trust, and Wyeth.
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              Klebsiella pneumoniae genotype K1: an emerging pathogen that causes septic ocular or central nervous system complications from pyogenic liver abscess.

              Since 1986, researchers have noted a syndrome of Klebsiella pneumoniae pyogenic liver abscess that is complicated by endophthalmitis or central nervous system infections. There are limited data regarding the role of bacterial genotype in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving 177 cases of K. pneumoniae pyogenic liver abscess treated during 1997-2005 at a tertiary university hospital in Taiwan. We performed bacterial cps genotyping by polymerase chain reaction detection of serotype-specific alleles at wzy and wzx loci and used an in vitro serum assay to evaluate the virulence of bacterial strains. Septic ocular or central nervous system complications developed in 23 patients (13%). Logistic regression analysis showed that genotype K1 was the only significant risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-15.7, P=.009). The serum resistance assay indicated that, on average, K1 strains (n=100) were significantly more virulent than were strains of K2 (n=36), K20/K5/K54 (n=21), or other genotypes (n=20) (P<.001 for each comparison). In addition to the serotype-specific cps region, the genomic background of K1 strains also differed significantly from that of non-K1 strains (20-kb kfu/PTS region, 97/100 vs. 13/77; P<.001). Of the 19 cases in which genotype K1 strains caused complications, 8 patients (42%) did not have identifiable underlying medical diseases. K. pneumoniae genotype K1 is an emerging pathogen capable of causing catastrophic septic ocular or central nervous system complications from pyogenic liver abscess independent of underlying diseases in the host.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
                Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg
                trstmh
                trstmh
                Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
                Oxford University Press
                0035-9203
                1878-3503
                June 2014
                29 April 2014
                29 April 2014
                : 108
                : 6
                : 326-337
                Affiliations
                [a ]Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
                [b ]Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
                [c ]National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Hanoi, Vietnam
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Tel: +84 4 3576 4320; Fax: +84 4 3576 4319; E-mail: bnadjm@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                tru058
                10.1093/trstmh/tru058
                4023908
                24781376
                © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 12
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