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      Efficacy and safety of daptomycin for skin and soft tissue infections: a systematic review with trial sequential analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are significant indications for antibiotic treatment. Daptomycin, a novel antibiotic, has been registered and licensed to be used in the treatment of these infections. However, its efficacy and safety remain controversial.

          Objective

          The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of daptomycin for the treatment of SSTIs and to analyze whether the available sample size has been large enough and is conclusive.

          Methods

          PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared daptomycin with other antibiotics in adult patients with SSTIs up to February 2016.

          Results

          This meta-analysis included eight randomized controlled trials (n=2,002). There was no difference in either the clinical success rate (intention-to-treat population: relative risk [RR] =1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.99–1.10, P=0.12; clinically evaluable population: RR =1.00, 95% CI =0.97–1.04, P=0.82) or the microbiological success rate (RR =1.00, 95% CI =0.95–1.06, P=0.92) between the daptomycin and comparator groups for treating SSTIs, which was confirmed by TSA. Compared with vancomycin, daptomycin exhibited no advantage in increasing the clinical success rate (RR =1.03, 95% CI =0.95–1.13, P=0.47), and this was also confirmed by TSA. All-cause mortality, overall treatment-related adverse events, and creatine phosphokinase events were similar between these two groups.

          Conclusion

          Daptomycin and comparator drugs are equally efficacious with regard to clinical and microbiological success for patients with SSTIs, and TSA showed that no additional randomized controlled trials are required. Although daptomycin is a good alternative when other antibiotics are contraindicated for patients with SSTIs and it can serve as a first-line treatment for SSTIs, clinicians should be aware of potential adverse events, such as daptomycin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia and creatine phosphokinase, when treating patients with daptomycin.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Correlation of daptomycin bactericidal activity and membrane depolarization in Staphylococcus aureus.

          The objective of this study was to further elucidate the role of membrane potential in the mechanism of action of daptomycin, a novel lipopeptide antibiotic. Membrane depolarization was measured by both fluorimetric and flow cytometric assays. Adding daptomycin (5 micro g/ml) to Staphylococcus aureus gradually dissipated membrane potential. In both assays, cell viability was reduced by >99% and membrane potential was reduced by >90% within 30 min of adding daptomycin. Cell viability decreased in parallel with changes in membrane potential, demonstrating a temporal correlation between bactericidal activity and membrane depolarization. Decreases in viability and potential also showed a dose-dependent correlation. Depolarization is indicative of ion movement across the cytoplasmic membrane. Fluorescent probes were used to demonstrate Ca(2+)-dependent, daptomycin-triggered potassium release from S. aureus. Potassium release was also correlated with bactericidal activity. This study demonstrates a clear correlation between dissipation of membrane potential and the bactericidal activity of daptomycin. A multistep model for daptomycin's mechanism of action is proposed.
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            Inhibition of daptomycin by pulmonary surfactant: in vitro modeling and clinical impact.

            The lipopeptide daptomycin has been approved for use in skin and skin-structure infections but has failed to meet statistical noninferiority criteria in a clinical trial for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Daptomycin exhibited an unusual pattern of activity in pulmonary animal models: efficacy in Staphylococcus aureus hematogenous pneumonia and inhalation anthrax but no activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae in simple bronchial-alveolar pneumonia. Daptomycin was shown to interact in vitro with pulmonary surfactant, resulting in inhibition of antibacterial activity. This effect was specific to daptomycin and consistent with its known mechanism of action. This represents the first example of organ-specific inhibition of an antibiotic.
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              Sequential methods for random-effects meta-analysis

              Although meta-analyses are typically viewed as retrospective activities, they are increasingly being applied prospectively to provide up-to-date evidence on specific research questions. When meta-analyses are updated account should be taken of the possibility of false-positive findings due to repeated significance tests. We discuss the use of sequential methods for meta-analyses that incorporate random effects to allow for heterogeneity across studies. We propose a method that uses an approximate semi-Bayes procedure to update evidence on the among-study variance, starting with an informative prior distribution that might be based on findings from previous meta-analyses. We compare our methods with other approaches, including the traditional method of cumulative meta-analysis, in a simulation study and observe that it has Type I and Type II error rates close to the nominal level. We illustrate the method using an example in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                22 September 2016
                : 12
                : 1455-1466
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing
                [2 ]Department of Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Xuanhan People’s Hospital, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Feihu Zhou, Department of Critical Care Medicine, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fu-Xing Road, Beijing 100853, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 6693 8148, Fax +86 10 8821 9862, Email feihuzhou301@ 123456126.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                tcrm-12-1455
                10.2147/TCRM.S115175
                5038576
                © 2016 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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