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      Nerve Fiber Layer Measurement Using Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Fixed Corneal Compensator in Normal Cynomolgus Monkey Eyes

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          Abstract

          Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal cynomolgus monkeys using a scanning laser polarimeter with a fixed corneal compensator (GDx FCC), and to clarify the reproducibility and symmetries (right-left differences) between both eyes for the GDx parameters. Methods: GDx parameters were measured in 36 normal eyes of 18 cynomolgus monkeys aged 4.0–5.5 years. The retardation values (thickness parameters) at peripapillary and macular areas obtained from the GDx FCC were measured and calculated thickness, ratio, and modulation parameters in the superior and inferior quadrants. Mean and standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and binocular differences were obtained for each parameter from three independent measurements made during a 1-week period. Correlation between both eyes in macular retardation and baseline values, which indicated the combined minimum retardation values for the nasal and temporal quadrants, and between macular retardation and baseline values were analyzed. Results: The intraocular pressure values (mean ± SD, n = 18) obtained for the right and left eyes were 20.7 ± 3.8 and 20.0 ± 3.2 mm Hg, respectively (no significant differences in both eyes). No significant differences between right and left eyes were detected for any GDx parameters. All parameters showed small right-left differences. The CVs (SD/mean × 100) for all parameters were less than 10%. Highly significant correlations were seen between bilateral eyes for macular retardation (r = 0.936, p < 0.0001) or baseline values (r = 0.946, p < 0.0001). A significant correlation (r = 0.883, p < 0.0001) was also seen between macular retardation and baseline values. Conclusions: Considering individual differences in corneal birefringence, GDx parameters obtained from a GDx FCC may be useful for the objective evaluation of time-related changes in individual eyes or for binocular comparisons in cynomolgus monkeys.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Effect of corneal polarization axis on assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry.

          Scanning laser polarimetry uses an anterior segment compensating device that assumes a fixed axis of corneal birefringence, which we call the corneal polarization axis. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the distribution of corneal polarization axes among a population of normal eyes and to evaluate the relationship between corneal polarization axis and posterior segment retardation. We constructed a noninvasive slit lamp-mounted device incorporating two crossed linear polarizers and an optical retarder in order to measure the slow axis of corneal birefringence. Normal subjects underwent corneal polarization axis measurement. A subset of eyes underwent scanning laser polarimetry of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (n = 32) and macula (n = 29), and retardation measurements were evaluated in each group. One hundred eighteen eyes of 63 normal subjects (35 female, 28 male) underwent corneal polarization axis measurement (mean age, 45.5 +/- 17.1 years). Six eyes (5.1%) demonstrated unmeasurable corneal polarization. In the remaining 112 eyes, the mode of the corneal polarization axis distribution was 10 to 20 degrees nasally downward (range, 90 degrees nasally downward to 54 degrees nasally upward). A significant (P <.0001) correlation was observed between fellow eyes (R(2) =.52), with a mean difference of 11.2 +/- 10.5 degrees (range, 0-52 degrees). Corneal polarization axis was significantly associated (R(2) =.52-.84) with retinal nerve fiber layer and macula summary retardation parameters (average thickness, ellipse average, superior and inferior average, superior and total integral; P <.0001 for all groups). The mean corneal polarization axis among normal corneas is nasally downward; however, considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability exists. The linear relationship between corneal polarization axis and posterior segment retardation parameters is responsible, in part, for the wide distribution of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness data generated by scanning laser polarimetry.
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            Retinal nerve fibre layer polarimetry: histological and clinical comparison.

            To compare histological thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer in the primate with retardation measurements obtained in vivo using the Mark II Nerve Fiber Analyzer (NFA, Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, USA). Scanning laser polarimetry was performed on both eyes of a healthy anaesthetised adult primate (Macaca mulatta). The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness was measured in the eye with the best polarimetry image. A nerve fibre layer thickness map was scaled and aligned to a retardation map to permit correlation of retardation and thickness measurements. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements could be satisfactorily aligned with corresponding retardation values at 216 locations. The overall correlation coefficient for nerve fibre layer thickness and retardation was r = 0.70 (n = 216, p < 0.001). Regional comparison showed the best correlation (r = 0.76, n = 45, p < 0.001) occurred inferior to the optic disc. Less positive but still highly significant correlations were seen superiorly and temporally (r = 0.52, n = 26, p = 0.007 and r = 0.49, n = 86, p = < 0.001 respectively), with the lowest correlation occurring at the nasal aspect of the disc (r = 0.06, n = 67, p = 0.64). In the primate eye, retinal nerve fibre layer thickness shows a positive correlation with retardation measurements obtained with the nerve fibre analyser. However, since the correlation coefficient varied around the optic disc, further evaluation of the device is advised before its routine clinical use.
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              Localised retinal nerve fibre layer defects in chronic experimental high pressure glaucoma in rhesus monkeys.

               J Jonas,  S Hayreh (1999)
              To evaluate prospectively in an experimental model of chronic high pressure glaucoma whether the concept of a mainly diffuse pattern of optic nerve damage holds true for high pressure glaucoma.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2006
                December 2005
                12 December 2005
                : 38
                : 1
                : 1-7
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Biofunctional Molecules, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu, and bGlaucoma Group, Research and Development Center, Santen Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Nara, Japan
                Article
                88258 Ophthalmic Res 2006;38:1–7
                10.1159/000088258
                16166816
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 18, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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