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      • Record: found
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      Unmatched perception of speed when running overground and on a treadmill.

      Gait & Posture

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          This study compared the perception of speed between overground and treadmill running. Twenty-one participants ran overground around an athletic track at their preferred speed for 3 min, immediately followed by a 3-min treadmill run and a further 3-min overground run. During the treadmill run, participants were blinded to the speed display and were free to adjust the speed until it was perceived similar as their previous self-selected overground speed. A video camera was used to determine the average running speed during each overground run. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to detect differences among the three speeds: overground speed during session 1 (OG1), perceived overground speed on the treadmill (TM), and overground speed during session 2 (OG2). A significant difference among the three running speeds was found (P=.039). Post hoc analyses showed that the treadmill speed was much slower than both overground speeds but the overground speed did not differ between session 1 and session 2 (OG1: 3.99 (0.78) m/s, TM: 2.73 (0.62) m/s, OG2: 3.80 (0.74) m/s). These findings confirmed that one's perception of speed was influenced by the treadmill on which individuals were unable to match their corresponding self-selected overground running speed. The unmatched perception of speed is likely due to the distortion of normal visual inputs resulting from the discrepancy between observed and expected optic flow. Clinicians, therapists and treadmill users should be aware of the different psychological demands between treadmill and overground locomotion when selecting gait speed.

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          Most cited references 16

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          A kinematic and kinetic comparison of overground and treadmill walking in healthy subjects.

          Gait evaluation protocols using instrumented treadmills will be increasingly used in the near future. For this reason, it must be shown that using instrumented treadmills will produce measures of the ground reaction force adequate for inverse dynamic analysis, and differences between treadmill and overground gait must be well characterized. Overground walking kinetics were estimated with the subjects walking at their self-selected comfortable walking speed. For the treadmill gait trials, the subjects walked on two treadmills, such that heel-strike occurred on the forward treadmill and toe-off occurred on the trailing treadmill. The treadmill was set to the average overground walking speed. Overground and treadmill data were evaluated using Vicon Plug-in Gait. The differences between the maxima and minima of kinematic and kinetic parameters for overground and treadmill gait were evaluated. The kinematics of treadmill and overground gait were very similar. Twelve of 22 kinematic parameter maxima were statistically significantly different (p<0.05), but the magnitude of the difference was generally less than 2 degrees . All GRF maxima were found to be statistically significantly smaller for treadmill versus overground gait (p<0.05) as were 15 of 18 moment, and 3 of 6 power maxima. However, the magnitude of the differences was comparable to the variability in normal gait parameters. The sagittal plane ankle moments were not statistically different for treadmill and overground gait. We have shown that treadmill gait is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to overground gait. Differences in kinematic and kinetic parameters can be detected in matched comparisons, particularly in the case of kinetic parameters. However, the magnitudes of these differences are all within the range of repeatability of measured kinematic parameters. Thus, the mechanics of treadmill and overground gait are very similar. Having demonstrated the essential equivalence of treadmill and overground gait, it is now possible for clinical movement analysis to take advantage of treadmill-based protocols.
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            Biomechanics of overground vs. treadmill walking in healthy individuals.

             Joseph Hidler,  S Lee (2008)
            The goal of this study was to compare treadmill walking with overground walking in healthy subjects with no known gait disorders. Nineteen subjects were tested, where each subject walked on a split-belt instrumented treadmill as well as over a smooth, flat surface. Comparisons between walking conditions were made for temporal gait parameters such as step length and cadence, leg kinematics, joint moments and powers, and muscle activity. Overall, very few differences were found in temporal gait parameters or leg kinematics between treadmill and overground walking. Conversely, sagittal plane joint moments were found to be quite different, where during treadmill walking trials, subjects demonstrated less dorsiflexor moments, less knee extensor moments, and greater hip extensor moments. Joint powers in the sagittal plane were found to be similar at the ankle but quite different at the knee and hip joints. Differences in muscle activity were observed between the two walking modalities, particularly in the tibialis anterior throughout stance, and in the hamstrings, vastus medialis and adductor longus during swing. While differences were observed in muscle activation patterns, joint moments and joint powers between the two walking modalities, the overall patterns in these behaviors were quite similar. From a therapeutic perspective, this suggests that training individuals with neurological injuries on a treadmill appears to be justified.
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              A kinematics and kinetic comparison of overground and treadmill running.

              The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematic and kinetic parameters of treadmill running to those of overground running. Twenty healthy young subjects ran overground at their self-selected moderate running speed. Motion capture and ground reaction force (GRF) data for three strides of each limb were recorded and the subjects' average running speed was evaluated. The subjects then ran on an instrumented treadmill set to their average overground running speed while motion capture and GRF data were recorded. The kinematics (body segment orientations and joint angles) and kinetics (net joint moments and joint powers) for treadmill (15 consecutive gait cycles) and overground running (three cycles each limb) were calculated and compared. The features of the kinematic and kinetic trajectories of treadmill gait were similar to those of overground gait. Statistically significant differences in knee kinematics,the peak values of GRF, joint moment, and joint power trajectories were identified. Parameters measured with an adequate instrumented treadmill are comparable to but not directly equivalent to those measured for overground running. With such an instrument, it is possible to study the mechanics of running under well-controlled and reproducible conditions. Treadmill-based analysis of running mechanics can be generalized to overground running mechanics, provided the treadmill surface is sufficiently stiff and belt speed is adequately regulated.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.01.001
                22357398

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