The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different estrogen manipulations have effects on the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the adult female rat hippocampus. Hippocampus was obtained from rats in proestrus (control), ovariectomized for 2, 10 and 15 days, ovariectomized for 15 days and treated with 17β-estradiol for 7 days, and treated with 17β-estradiol immediately after ovariectomy for 21 days. Rats’ estrogen status was monitored by measuring estradiol plasma levels and uterus relative weight. [<sup>3</sup>H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([<sup>3</sup>H]QNB) binding studies indicated that ovariectomy time-dependently increases the number of mAChRs in hippocampus when compared to those obtained from control rats. Estradiol treatments for 21 days avoid the effect of ovariectomy. However, the estradiol treatments for 7 days after 15 days of ovariectomy slightly change the number of mAChRs. In conclusion, these results showed that ovariectomy time-dependently increases mAChRs number in the rat hippocampus. In addition, these data suggest that treatment with estradiol initiated within a specific period of time after the loss of ovarian function may be effective at preventing specific effects of hormone deprivation on hippocampus.