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      How does sleep help recovery from exercise-induced muscle injuries?

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          Is Open Access

          The Sleep-Immune Crosstalk in Health and Disease

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            Effects of sleep and circadian rhythm on the human immune system.

            Many immune parameters show systematic fluctuations over the 24-h day in human blood. Circulating naive T-cells and production of proinflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-12 (IL-12), peak during nighttime, whereas cytotoxic effector leukocytes and production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 peak during daytime. These temporal changes originate from a combined influence of the circadian system and sleep. Both brain functions act synergistically and share neuroendocrine effector mechanisms to convey control over immune functions. Sympathetic tone and cortisol levels show a circadian nadir during nighttime and are further suppressed by sleep, whereas growth hormone and prolactin show a circadian peak during nighttime and are further enhanced by sleep. Thus, the circadian system and sleep jointly evoke a unique endocrine constellation that is extremely effective in inducing changes in leukocyte traffic and a shift toward proinflammatory type 1-cytokines during the nocturnal period of sleep, that is, an action with strong clinical implications.
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              Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle regeneration.

              Under normal circumstances, mammalian adult skeletal muscle is a stable tissue with very little turnover of nuclei. However, upon injury, skeletal muscle has the remarkable ability to initiate a rapid and extensive repair process preventing the loss of muscle mass. Skeletal muscle repair is a highly synchronized process involving the activation of various cellular responses. The initial phase of muscle repair is characterized by necrosis of the damaged tissue and activation of an inflammatory response. This phase is rapidly followed by activation of myogenic cells to proliferate, differentiate, and fuse leading to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. Activation of adult muscle satellite cells is a key element in this process. Muscle satellite cell activation resembles embryonic myogenesis in several ways including the de novo induction of the myogenic regulatory factors. Signaling factors released during the regenerating process have been identified, but their functions remain to be fully defined. In addition, recent evidence supports the possible contribution of adult stem cells in the muscle regeneration process. In particular, bone marrow-derived and muscle-derived stem cells contribute to new myofiber formation and to the satellite cell pool after injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
                Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
                Elsevier BV
                14402440
                October 2021
                October 2021
                : 24
                : 10
                : 982-987
                Article
                10.1016/j.jsams.2021.05.007
                1c501fc3-ddce-4831-9ce6-ef2e7ecb0e66
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://www.elsevier.com/open-access/userlicense/1.0/


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