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      Biomarker discovery for renal cancer stem cells

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          Abstract

          Characterised by high intra‐ and inter‐tumor heterogeneity, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is resistant to chemo‐ and radiotherapy. Therefore, the development of new prognostic and diagnostic markers for RCC patients is needed. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of neoplastic cells within a tumor which present characteristics reminiscent of normal stem cells. CSCs are characterised by unlimited cell division, maintenance of the stem cell pool (self‐renewal), and capability to give rise to all cell types within a tumor; and contribute to metastasis in vivo (tumourigenicity), treatment resistance and recurrence. So far, many studies have tried to establish unique biomarkers to identify CSC populations in RCC. At the same time, different approaches have been developed with the aim to isolate CSCs. Consequently, several markers were found to be specifically expressed in CSCs and cancer stem‐like cells derived from RCC such as CD105, ALDH1, OCT4, CD133, and CXCR4. However, the contribution of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and tumor microenvironment, to cellular plasticity have made the discovery of unique biomarkers a very difficult task. In fact, contrasting results regarding the applicability of such markers to the isolation of renal CSCs have been reported in the literature. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanism underlying CSC may help dissecting tumor heterogeneity and drug treatment efficiency.

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          Most cited references 109

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          Evolution of the cancer stem cell model.

          Genetic analyses have shaped much of our understanding of cancer. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that cancer cells display features of normal tissue organization, where cancer stem cells (CSCs) can drive tumor growth. Although often considered as mutually exclusive models to describe tumor heterogeneity, we propose that the genetic and CSC models of cancer can be harmonized by considering the role of genetic diversity and nongenetic influences in contributing to tumor heterogeneity. We offer an approach to integrating CSCs and cancer genetic data that will guide the field in interpreting past observations and designing future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            CD44: from adhesion molecules to signalling regulators.

            Cell-adhesion molecules, once believed to function primarily in tethering cells to extracellular ligands, are now recognized as having broader functions in cellular signalling cascades. The CD44 transmembrane glycoprotein family adds new aspects to these roles by participating in signal-transduction processes--not only by establishing specific transmembrane complexes, but also by organizing signalling cascades through association with the actin cytoskeleton. CD44 and its associated partner proteins monitor changes in the extracellular matrix that influence cell growth, survival and differentiation.
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              Identification of cells initiating human melanomas.

              Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies and solid cancers. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5- bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ subpopulations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5- progeny, whereas ABCB5- tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5- cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Claudia.Corro@usz.ch
                Journal
                J Pathol Clin Res
                J Pathol Clin Res
                10.1002/(ISSN)2056-4538
                CJP2
                The Journal of Pathology: Clinical Research
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2056-4538
                17 January 2018
                January 2018
                : 4
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1002/cjp2.v4.1 )
                : 3-18
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology University Hospital Zurich Switzerland
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Claudia Corrò, Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, Zurich 8091, Switzerland. E‐mail: Claudia.Corro@ 123456usz.ch
                Article
                CJP291
                10.1002/cjp2.91
                5783955
                © 2017 The Authors The Journal of Pathology: Clinical Research published by The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland and John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 16, Words: 10834
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                Custom metadata
                2.0
                cjp291
                January 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.3.1 mode:remove_FC converted:24.01.2018

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