Abstract The aim of the study was to establish a nationwide barcode library for the most diverse group of Austrian Lepidoptera , the Noctuoidea , with 5 families ( Erebidae , Euteliidae , Noctuidae , Nolidae , Notodontidae ) and around 690 species. Altogether, 3431 DNA barcode sequences from COI gene (cytochrome c oxidase 1) belonging to 671 species were gathered, with 3223 sequences >500 bp. The intraspecific divergence with a mean of only 0.17% is low in most species whereas interspecific distances to the Nearest Neighbour are significantly higher with an average of 4.95%. Diagnostic DNA barcodes were obtained for 658 species. Only 13 species (1.9% of the Austrian Noctuoidea ) cannot be reliably identified from their DNA barcode ( Setina aurita / Setina irrorella , Conisania leineri / Conisania poelli , Photedes captiuncula / Photedes minima , Euxoa obelisca / Euxoa vitta / Euxoa tritici , Mesapamaea secalella / Mesapamea secalis , Amphipoea fucosa / Amphipoea lucens ). A similarly high identification performance was achieved by the Barcode Index (BIN) system. 671 species of Austrian Noctuoidea , representing 3202 records with BINs, are assigned to a total of 678 BINs. The vast majority of 649 species is placed into a single BIN, with only 13 species recognised as BIN-sharing (including the barcode sharing species above). Twenty-one species were assigned to more than one BIN and have to be checked for cryptic diversity in the future.