+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Sevoflurane post-conditioning attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced neuronal apoptosis by promoting autophagy via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Sevoflurane post-conditioning exerts nerve-protective effects through inhibiting caspase-dependent neuronal apoptosis after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Autophagy that is induced by the endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role in the secondary neurological dysfunction after a TBI. However, the relationship between autophagy and caspase-dependent apoptosis as well as the underlying nerve protection mechanism that occurs with sevoflurane post-conditioning following a TBI remains unclear.


          The Feeney TBI model was used to induce brain injury in rats. Evaluation of the modified neurological severity scores, measurement of brain water content, Nissl staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay were used to determine the neuroprotective effects of the sevoflurane post-conditioning. Both immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and Beclin-1, pro-apoptotic factors, as well as the activation of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway within the lesioned cortex.


          Autophagy and neuronal apoptosis were activated in the lesioned cortex following the TBI. Sevoflurane post-conditioning enhanced early autophagy, suppressed neuronal apoptosis, and alleviated brain edema, which improved nerve function after a TBI (all P < 0.05). Sevoflurane post-conditioning induced the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling after the TBI ( P < 0.05). The neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane post-conditioning were reversed through the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine treatment.


          Neuronal apoptosis and the activation of autophagy were involved in the secondary neurological injury following a TBI. Sevoflurane post-conditioning weakened the TBI-induced neuronal apoptosis by regulating autophagy via PI3K/AKT signaling.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 25

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Autophagy is involved in traumatic brain injury-induced cell death and contributes to functional outcome deficits in mice.

          Previous data demonstrate that traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates autophagy, and increases microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) immunostaining mainly in neurons. However, the role of autophagy in traumatic brain damage remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autophagic mechanisms participating in traumatic brain injury. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafliomycin A1 (BFA) were administered with a single i.c.v. injection before TBI. We first examined the protein levels of Beclin-1 and LC3 II, which have been found to promote autophagy previously. Immunoblotting analysis showed that 3-MA pretreatment reduced post-TBI Beclin-1 and LC3-II levels, and maintained p62/SQSTM1 (p62) levels. In addition, double immunolabeling showed that the increased punctate LC3-II dots colocalizing with Propidium Iodide (PI)-stained nuclei at 24 h after injury, were partially inhibited by 3-MA pretreatment. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy could reduce TBI-induced cell injury assessed with i.p. injection of PI and lesion volume, and attenuate behavioral outcome evaluated by motor test and Morris water maze. The neuroprotective effects were associated with an inhibition on TBI-induced up-regulation of LC3, Beclin-1, cathepsin B, caspase-3 and the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 ratio. Taken together, these data imply that the autophagy pathway is involved in the pathophysiologic responses after TBI, and inhibition of this pathway may help attenuate traumatic damage and functional outcome deficits. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Melatonin attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced inflammation: a possible role for mitophagy.

            Melatonin functions as a crucial mediator of sterile neuroinflammation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Dysfunctional mitochondria, a main source of reactive oxygen species, are impacted in inflammation activation. This study aimed to examine the effect of melatonin on inflammation via elimination of damaged mitochondria after controlled cortical impact, an in vivo model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we demonstrated that inhibition of mitophagy, the selective degradation of damaged mitochondria by autophagy, markedly enhanced inflammation induced by TBI. Melatonin treatment activated mitophagy through the mTOR pathway, then to attenuate TBI-induced inflammation. Furthermore, treatment with melatonin significantly ameliorated neuronal death and behavioral deficits after TBI, while 3-methyladenine reversed this effect by inhibiting mitophagy. Taken together, these results highlight a role for melatonin in protecting against TBI-triggered immunopathology, which is accomplished by negatively regulating inflammation activation and IL-1β secretion via the autophagy of damaged mitochondria.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Melatonin protects the brain from apoptosis by enhancement of autophagy after traumatic brain injury in mice.

              Melatonin has been proven to possess neuroprotection property against various neurological diseases by decreasing cerebral oxidative stress and inhibiting inflammatory process. However, whether administration of melatonin influences the autophagy pathway, which has recently been reported playing a pivotal role in traumatic brain injury, is yet not fully understood. We supposed that treatment of melatonin enhances the autophagy pathway after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice and subsequently inhibited the mitochondrion apoptotic pathway. Firstly, we investigated the neurological severity score, brain water content and neuronal apoptosis in mice cortex to demonstrate the neuroprotection of melatonin. Then we determined the autophagy markers, namely Beclin1 and LC3-II, using western blot and immunofluorescence. Next, we evaluated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in the presence or absence of melatonin. More significantly, we employed 3-methyladenine (3-MA) to inhibit the autophagy pathway, to further confirm our hypothesis. The results showed that melatonin significantly ameliorated secondary brain injury induced by TBI. In addition, melatonin enhanced autophagy after TBI, which was accompanied by a decrease in both the translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome C to cytoplasm. Furthermore, simultaneous treatment of 3-MA reversed the beneficial effects of melatonin on mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together, we conclude that melatonin enhances autophagy, which inhibits mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, thus protecting mice from secondary brain injury after TBI.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                23 March 2018
                : 12
                : 629-638
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesia, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian, China
                [2 ]Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian, China
                [3 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, Guangxi, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Weifeng Liu, Department of Anesthesia, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, 34#, zhongshan Road, Quanzhou 362000, Fujian Province, China, Tel +86 139 0597 3725, Email rong281@ 123456126.com
                Huangde Fu, Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise 533000, Guangxi Province, China, Tel +86 139 7762 1523, Email xiangrong_chen281@ 123456126.com
                © 2018 He et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                Comment on this article