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      Portal vein thrombosis in a patient with HCV cirrhosis and combined hemophilia A and thrombophilia V Leiden

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          Abstract

          The relation of hemophilia A with thrombophilia V Leiden is extremely rare in the literature. Furthermore, hemophiliac patients have an increased risk of severe life-threatening hemorrhage, blood transfusions, and therefore hepatitis transmission, mainly hepatitis C (HCV).

          Aims and methods

          We present a 54-year-old male with a 5-year history of decompensated liver cirrhosis on the grounds of HCV hepatitis, hemophilia A, and thrombophilia V Leiden. He was admitted to our department because of severe abdominal distension, resembling ‘tense ascites’ despite the use of diuretics. Clinical examination showed shifting dullness and a protuberant abdomen, while hematological and blood chemistry results revealed thrombopenia (platelets: 77000/mL) and hypoalbuminemia. Repeated abdominal paracentesis (under factor VIII administration) failed to remove ascitic fluid, while abdominal echosonography and computed tomography revealed severe edema of mesenterium and intraabdominal viscus and the absence of free ascitic fluid, atrophic cirrhotic liver, and splenomegaly. Moreover, abdominal doppler echosonography revealed signs of portal hypertension, previous portal vein thrombosis, and revascularization of the portal vein. Gastroscopy showed esophageal varices grade II, without signs of bleeding. A-FP and all other laboratory examinations were normal.

          Results

          Our patient was intravenously treated with albumine and diuretics (furosemide) with mild improvement of his abdominal distension. During his hospitalization he presented an episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopathy, which were successfully treated with lactulose clysmas and ciprofloxacine. He was discharged in a good general condition.

          Conclusion

          According to our case we consider the false clinical picture of ‘tense ascites’ of our patient as a rare clinical presentation of decompensated liver cirrhosis, with severe edema of mesenterium and viscus, on the grounds of preexisting portal vein thrombosis, in a patient with combined hemophilia A and thrombophilia V Leiden.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Cause of portal or hepatic venous thrombosis in adults: the role of multiple concurrent factors.

          According to a recent hypothesis, venous thrombosis results from the concurrence of several factors. This hypothesis was assessed in patients with portal or hepatic venous thrombosis by simultaneously investigating most of the currently identified prothrombotic disorders, local precipitating factors, and other risk factors such as oral contraceptive use. Patients with a tumorous obstruction and patients with cirrhosis with portal vein thrombosis were excluded. The prothrombotic disorders that were investigated included classical and occult myeloproliferative disorders; antiphospholipid syndrome; protein C; protein S and antithrombin deficiency; factor V Leiden; factor II; and methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase gene mutations. We found 1 or several prothrombotic disorders and a local precipitating factor in 26 and 10 of the 36 patients with portal vein thrombosis, respectively; and in 28 and none of the 32 patients with hepatic vein thrombosis, respectively. We found a combination of prothrombotic disorders in 5 and 9 patients with portal and hepatic vein thrombosis, respectively, whereas such a combination is expected in less than 1% of asymptomatic subjects. Of the 10 patients with a local precipitating factor, 8 had a prothrombotic disorder. Of the 13 patients who use oral contraceptives, 10 had a prothrombotic disorder. We conclude that portal or hepatic venous thrombosis should be regarded as an index for 1 or several prothrombotic disorders, whether or not local precipitating factors or oral contraceptive use are found. Concurrence of prothrombotic disorders is more common than expected. Extensive investigation of prothrombotic disorders and anticoagulation should be considered in patients with portal or hepatic venous thrombosis.
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            Inherited coagulation disorders in cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis.

            The prevalence and pathogenesis of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma are not clearly defined. The role of thrombophilic genetic factors is well established in other venous thrombotic diseases, as well as in noncirrhotic portal thrombosis. Recently, new, inherited thrombophilic disorders (factor V Leiden [FVL], mutation G20210A of prothrombin [PTHR A(20210)], and mutation TT677 of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR C677-->T]) have been identified and associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of these thrombophilic disorders in the pathogenesis of PVT in cirrhotic patients. Twenty-three cirrhotic patients with PVT and 40 cirrhotics without PVT were included. A group of 184 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and 431 healthy persons served as controls. The FVL, PTHR A(20210), and MTHFR C(677)-->T genotypes were identified by a polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. The frequencies of FVL, PTHR A(20210) mutation, and homozygous MTHFR C(677)-->T were 13%, 34.8%, and 43.5% in cirrhotic patients with PVT and 7.5%, 2.5%, and 5% in cirrhotic patients without PVT, respectively. Five patients in the former group had associated defects. A thrombophilic genotype was detected in 69.5% of the patients with PVT. Identification of this high-risk group may have implications in patients who are candidates for major surgery or liver transplantation, and may influence the duration of oral anticoagulation.
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              An in vitro analysis of the combination of hemophilia A and factor V(LEIDEN).

              The classification of factor VIII deficiency, generally used based on plasma levels of factor VIII, consists of severe ( Gln mutation in the factor V molecule. Based on the factor VIII level measured using factor VIII-deficient plasma, these two patients were classified as mild/moderate hemophiliacs. We studied the condition of moderate to severe hemophilia A combined with the factor V(LEIDEN) mutation in vitro in a reconstituted model of the tissue factor pathway to thrombin. In the model, thrombin generation was initiated by relipidated tissue factor and factor VIIa in the presence of the coagulation factors X, IX, II, V, and VIII and the inhibitors tissue factor pathway inhibitor, antithrombin-III, and protein C. At 5 pmol/L initiating factor VIIa x tissue factor, a 10-fold higher peak level of thrombin formation (350 nmol/L), was observed in the system in the presence of plasma levels of factor VIII compared with reactions without factor VIII. Significant increase in thrombin formation was observed at factor VIII concentrations less than 42 pmol/L (approximately 6% of the normal factor VIII plasma concentration). In reactions without factor VIII, in which thrombin generation was downregulated by the addition of protein C and thrombomodulin, an increase of thrombin formation was observed with the factor V(LEIDEN) mutation. The level of increase in thrombin generation in the hemophilia A situation was found to be dependent on the factor V(LEIDEN) concentration. When the factor V(LEIDEN) concentration was varied from 50% to 150% of the normal plasma concentration, the increase in thrombin generation ranged from threefold to sevenfold. The data suggested that the analysis of the factor V genotype should be accompanied by a quantitative analysis of the plasma factor V(LEIDEN) level to understand the effect of factor V(LEIDEN) in hemophilia A patients. The presented data support the hypothesis that the factor V(LEIDEN) mutation can increase thrombin formation in severe hemophilia A.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2010
                2010
                26 October 2010
                : 6
                : 539-541
                Affiliations
                Hemostatic Unit of The First Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotles University of Thessaloniki, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence: N Eleftheriadis, Perdika 13 Ptolemaida, 50200, Kozani, Greece, Tel +30 6977778832, Email nikoseleftheriadis@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                tcrm-6-539
                10.2147/TCRM.S13660
                2988613
                21127694
                © 2010 Eleftheriadis et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Rapid Communication

                Medicine

                portal vein thrombosis, thrombophilia v leiden, hemophilia a, hcv cirrhosis

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