Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a heterogeneous multiorgan disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene leading to misfolding (and other defects) and consequent dysfunction of CFTR protein. The majority of mutations cause a severe CF phenotype, and people with this condition will require a wide variety of medical interventions and therapies throughout their lives to address the symptoms of their condition. CF affects many different organ systems, but the most serious consequence of the disease is degeneration of lung function due to chronic respiratory infection and colonization of the airways with opportunistic microbial pathogens. Improvements in therapeutics, particularly the effective use of antibiotics, have led to significant gradual increases in life expectancy. There remains, however, a continuing need for newer, safer and more effective antimicrobials and mucolytic agents to maintain and improve our ability to combat CF lung infections before other curative approaches which target the root cause of the disease become available.