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Mechanisms of planar cell polarity establishment in Drosophila

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      Abstract

      Correct patterning and polarization of epithelial and mesenchymal cells are essential for morphogenesis and function of all organs and organisms. Epithelial cells are generally polarized in two axes: (a) the ubiquitous apical-basal axis and (b) polarity within the plane of the epithelium. The latter is generally referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP) and also is found in several contexts of mesenchymal cell patterning. In Drosophila, all adult structures display PCP features, and two conserved molecular systems (the Fat [Ft]/Dachsous [Ds] system and the Frizzled [Fz]/PCP pathway) that regulate this process have been identified. Although significant progress has been made in dissecting aspects of PCP signaling within cells, much remains to be discovered about the mechanisms of long-range and local PCP cell-cell interactions. Here, we discuss the current models based on Drosophila studies and incorporate recent insights into this long-standing cell and developmental biology problem.

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      Hippo signaling: growth control and beyond.

      The Hippo pathway has emerged as a conserved signaling pathway that is essential for the proper regulation of organ growth in Drosophila and vertebrates. Although the mechanisms of signal transduction of the core kinases Hippo/Mst and Warts/Lats are relatively well understood, less is known about the upstream inputs of the pathway and about the downstream cellular and developmental outputs. Here, we review recently discovered mechanisms that contribute to the dynamic regulation of Hippo signaling during Drosophila and vertebrate development. We also discuss the expanding diversity of Hippo signaling functions during development, discoveries that shed light on a complex regulatory system and provide exciting new insights into the elusive mechanisms that regulate organ growth and regeneration.
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        Cell flow reorients the axis of planar polarity in the wing epithelium of Drosophila.

        Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins form polarized cortical domains that govern polarity of external structures such as hairs and cilia in both vertebrate and invertebrate epithelia. The mechanisms that globally orient planar polarity are not understood, and are investigated here in the Drosophila wing using a combination of experiment and theory. Planar polarity arises during growth and PCP domains are initially oriented toward the well-characterized organizer regions that control growth and patterning. At pupal stages, the wing hinge contracts, subjecting wing-blade epithelial cells to anisotropic tension in the proximal-distal axis. This results in precise patterns of oriented cell elongation, cell rearrangement and cell division that elongate the blade proximo-distally and realign planar polarity with the proximal-distal axis. Mutation of the atypical Cadherin Dachsous perturbs the global polarity pattern by altering epithelial dynamics. This mechanism utilizes the cellular movements that sculpt tissues to align planar polarity with tissue shape. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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          Silberblick/Wnt11 mediates convergent extension movements during zebrafish gastrulation.

          Vertebrate gastrulation involves the specification and coordinated movement of large populations of cells that give rise to the ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal germ layers. Although many of the genes involved in the specification of cell identity during this process have been identified, little is known of the genes that coordinate cell movement. Here we show that the zebrafish silberblick (slb) locus encodes Wnt11 and that Slb/Wnt11 activity is required for cells to undergo correct convergent extension movements during gastrulation. In the absence of Slb/Wnt11 function, abnormal extension of axial tissue results in cyclopia and other midline defects in the head. The requirement for Slb/Wnt11 is cell non-autonomous, and our results indicate that the correct extension of axial tissue is at least partly dependent on medio-lateral cell intercalation in paraxial tissue. We also show that the slb phenotype is rescued by a truncated form of Dishevelled that does not signal through the canonical Wnt pathway, suggesting that, as in flies, Wnt signalling might mediate morphogenetic events through a divergent signal transduction cascade. Our results provide genetic and experimental evidence that Wnt activity in lateral tissues has a crucial role in driving the convergent extension movements underlying vertebrate gastrulation.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Developmental & Regenerative Biology and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1020, New York, NY 10029USA
            Contributors
            Journal
            F1000Prime Rep
            F1000Prime Rep
            F1000Prime Reports
            Faculty of 1000 Ltd
            2051-7599
            04 November 2014
            2014
            : 6
            4229721
            10.12703/P6-98
            98
            © 2014 Faculty of 1000 Ltd

            All F1000Prime Reports articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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