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      Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP) at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years.

          Methods

          We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline), when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables.

          Results

          Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP.

          Conclusion

          The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal studies when studying factors that might influence the initiation of pain. UBP preventative measures might need to include both lifestyle (such as dietary habits and physical activity to ensure that the individuals are not becoming overweight) and work-related factors such as social support.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Long-term health benefits of physical activity – a systematic review of longitudinal studies

          Background The treatment of noncommunicable diseases (NCD), like coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus, causes rising costs for the health system. Physical activity is supposed to reduce the risk for these diseases. Results of cross-sectional studies showed that physical activity is associated with better health, and that physical activity could prevent the development of these diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing evidence for the long-term (>5 years) relationship between physical activity and weight gain, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Methods Fifteen longitudinal studies with at least 5-year follow up times and a total of 288,724 subjects (>500 participants in each study), aged between 18 and 85 years, were identified using digital databases. Only studies published in English, about healthy adults at baseline, intentional physical activity and the listed NCDs were included. Results The results of these studies show that physical activity appears to have a positive long-term influence on all selected diseases. Conclusions This review revealed a paucity of long-term studies on the relationship between physical activity and the incidence of NCD.
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            Risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review of recent longitudinal studies.

            This systematic review was designed and conducted in an effort to evaluate the evidence currently available for the many suggested risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. To identify pertinent literature we searched four electronic databases (Cinahl, Embase, Medline, and The Cochrane Library). The search strategies combined terms for musculoskeletal disorders, work, and risk factors. Only case-control or cohort studies were included. A total of 1,761 non-duplicated articles were identified and screened, and 63 studies were reviewed and integrated in this article. The risk factors identified for the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders were divided and organized according to the affected body part, type of risk factor (biomechanical, psychosocial, or individual) and level of evidence (strong, reasonable, or insufficient evidence). Risk factors with at least reasonable evidence of a causal relationship for the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders include: heavy physical work, smoking, high body mass index, high psychosocial work demands, and the presence of co-morbidities. The most commonly reported biomechanical risk factors with at least reasonable evidence for causing WMSD include excessive repetition, awkward postures, and heavy lifting. Additional high methodological quality studies are needed to further understand and provide stronger evidence of the causal relationship between risk factors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The information provided in this article may be useful to healthcare providers, researchers, and ergonomists interested on risk identification and design of interventions to reduce the rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Social support and resilience to stress: from neurobiology to clinical practice.

              Numerous studies indicate social support is essential for maintaining physical and psychological health. The harmful consequences of poor social support and the protective effects of good social support in mental illness have been well documented. Social support may moderate genetic and environmental vulnerabilities and confer resilience to stress, possibly via its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, the noradrenergic system, and central oxytocin pathways. There is a substantial need for additional research and development of specific interventions aiming to increase social support for psychiatrically ill and at-risk populations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2016
                24 May 2016
                : 9
                : 303-310
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
                [2 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                [3 ]Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ulrika Aasa, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden, Tel +46 90 786 9273, Email ulrika.aasa@ 123456umu.se
                Article
                jpr-9-303
                10.2147/JPR.S93845
                4889214
                27307762
                © 2016 Hesselman Borg et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                physical fitness, adolescence, adult, control, demand, physical activity

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