18
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      The cellular and molecular bases of leptin and ghrelin resistance in obesity

      , ,

      Nature Reviews Endocrinology

      Springer Nature

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In obesity, individuals develop resistance to leptin and ghrelin, which have important functions in the neuroendocrine control of energy homeostasis. Here, Cui and colleagues discuss the mechanisms that lead to leptin and ghrelin resistance, and how they might be exploited as targets for the management and treatment of obesity.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 176

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R.

          The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. To identify high affinity leptin-binding sites, we generated a series of leptin-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion proteins as well as [125I]leptin. After a binding survey of cell lines and tissues, we identified leptin-binding sites in the mouse choroid plexus. A cDNA expression library was prepared from mouse choroid plexus and screened with a leptin-AP fusion protein to identify a leptin receptor (OB-R). OB-R is a single membrane-spanning receptor most related to the gp130 signal-transducing component of the IL-6 receptor, the G-CSF receptor, and the LIF receptor. OB-R mRNA is expressed not only in choroid plexus, but also in several other tissues, including hypothalamus. Genetic mapping of the gene encoding OB-R shows that it is within the 5.1 cM interval of mouse chromosome 4 that contains the db locus.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a central role in development of leptin resistance.

            Leptin has not evolved as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of obesity due to the prevalence of leptin resistance in a majority of the obese population. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of leptin resistance remain poorly understood. Here, we show that increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the hypothalamus of obese mice inhibits leptin receptor signaling. The genetic imposition of reduced ER capacity in mice results in severe leptin resistance and leads to a significant augmentation of obesity on a high-fat diet. Moreover, we show that chemical chaperones, 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA), and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), which have the ability to decrease ER stress, act as leptin-sensitizing agents. Taken together, our results may provide the basis for a novel treatment of obesity.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              UCP2 mediates ghrelin's action on NPY/AgRP neurons by lowering free radicals.

              The gut-derived hormone ghrelin exerts its effect on the brain by regulating neuronal activity. Ghrelin-induced feeding behaviour is controlled by arcuate nucleus neurons that co-express neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP neurons). However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by ghrelin to alter NPY/AgRP neuronal activity are poorly understood. Here we show that ghrelin initiates robust changes in hypothalamic mitochondrial respiration in mice that are dependent on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Activation of this mitochondrial mechanism is critical for ghrelin-induced mitochondrial proliferation and electric activation of NPY/AgRP neurons, for ghrelin-triggered synaptic plasticity of pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing neurons, and for ghrelin-induced food intake. The UCP2-dependent action of ghrelin on NPY/AgRP neurons is driven by a hypothalamic fatty acid oxidation pathway involving AMPK, CPT1 and free radicals that are scavenged by UCP2. These results reveal a signalling modality connecting mitochondria-mediated effects of G-protein-coupled receptors on neuronal function and associated behaviour.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Endocrinology
                Nat Rev Endocrinol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5029
                1759-5037
                February 24 2017
                February 24 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrendo.2016.222
                28232667
                © 2017

                Comments

                Comment on this article