The interaction between gonadal steroids and dopamine neurons has been examined extensively in rodent model systems. However, there have been few investigations examining the functional relation between gonadal steroids and dopaminergic systems in nonmammalian taxa, and none in amphibians. We examined the effects of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on changes in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) neuron number in the fore- and midbrain of male Rana pipiens, the Northern leopard frog, using a whole-mount immunohistochemical procedure. Gonadectomized males had significantly fewer TH-ir neurons in the medial preoptic area (POA), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the caudal hypothalamus/posterior tubercular region (HY/TP) compared with T-implanted males. A follow-up study demonstrated that T- and DHT-implanted males had similar numbers of TH-ir neurons in these three regions compared with intact males and that all three of these groups possessed significantly more TH-ir neurons compared with gonadectomized males. These results suggest that circulating sex steroids have a significant impact on the activity of dopaminergic neurons in male R. pipiens. Although the function of these specific dopaminergic neurons is not yet known, the POA, SCN, and TP/DH are known to be integral brain regions underlying the neural control of reproductive behavior in frogs. These results suggest that dopamine may be important in controlling the behavior or neuroendocrine mechanisms of reproduction in these animals and that dopaminergic activity in these areas is regulated by gonadal steroids.