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      A New View on Immune-Adrenal Interactions: Role for Fas and Fas Ligand?

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          Abstract

          The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system interact in a bidirectional manner providing the basis for the regulation of the immune response due to a pathogenic stimulus. This interplay is commonly believed to be based on the action of hormones or cytokines, respectively. Since it has been detected that adrenocortical cells offer immunological properties such as expression of MHC class II antigens and/or CD95 (Fas antigen) and its ligand, the question has to be raised whether direct intercellular communication between immune cells and ‘immunocompetent’ endocrine cells contributes to the complexity of immunoregulation. Here we discuss the possible reciprocal relevance of physiological and pathological adrenal changes, as well as T-cell-mediated immune response for immune and/or adrenal pathology during disease.

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          Hormones, peripherally activated prohormones and regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

          There is much interest in the factors that control the cytokine profile of T-helper (Th) lymphocytes, and attention has focused on feedback from the cytokines themselves. In general, Th1 cytokines promote Th1 activity and inhibit Th2 activity, and vice versa. Both Th1 and Th2 responses should therefore be stable. However, in vivo, many responses start predominantly as Th1 and then shift to Th2. Why do they do this? As discussed here, an important influence on this shift that has been largely ignored in in vitro work is the endocrine system.
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            Kinetics of Response in Lymphoid Tissues to Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1 Infection

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NIM
              Neuroimmunomodulation
              10.1159/issn.1021-7401
              Neuroimmunomodulation
              S. Karger AG
              1021-7401
              1423-0216
              1998
              April 1998
              10 July 1998
              : 5
              : 1-2
              : 5-8
              Affiliations
              a Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Leipzig, Germany; b National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Md., USA
              Article
              26320 Neuroimmunomodulation 1998;5:5–8
              10.1159/000026320
              9698252
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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              Pages: 4
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