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      A New View on Immune-Adrenal Interactions: Role for Fas and Fas Ligand?

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          The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system interact in a bidirectional manner providing the basis for the regulation of the immune response due to a pathogenic stimulus. This interplay is commonly believed to be based on the action of hormones or cytokines, respectively. Since it has been detected that adrenocortical cells offer immunological properties such as expression of MHC class II antigens and/or CD95 (Fas antigen) and its ligand, the question has to be raised whether direct intercellular communication between immune cells and ‘immunocompetent’ endocrine cells contributes to the complexity of immunoregulation. Here we discuss the possible reciprocal relevance of physiological and pathological adrenal changes, as well as T-cell-mediated immune response for immune and/or adrenal pathology during disease.

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          Hormones, peripherally activated prohormones and regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

          There is much interest in the factors that control the cytokine profile of T-helper (Th) lymphocytes, and attention has focused on feedback from the cytokines themselves. In general, Th1 cytokines promote Th1 activity and inhibit Th2 activity, and vice versa. Both Th1 and Th2 responses should therefore be stable. However, in vivo, many responses start predominantly as Th1 and then shift to Th2. Why do they do this? As discussed here, an important influence on this shift that has been largely ignored in in vitro work is the endocrine system.
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            Kinetics of Response in Lymphoid Tissues to Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1 Infection


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              April 1998
              10 July 1998
              : 5
              : 1-2
              : 5-8
              a Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Leipzig, Germany; b National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Md., USA
              26320 Neuroimmunomodulation 1998;5:5–8
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Pages: 4


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