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      The management of the acute setting of pelvic fracture urethral injury (realignment vs. suprapubic cystostomy alone)

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          Abstract

          Background

          In patients with pelvic fracture urethral injury there are two options for management: First, to realign as an early primary realignment over a catheter; and second, to place a suprapubic tube with delayed urethroplasty of the inevitable stricture.

          Methods

          We reviewed previous reports from 1990 to the present, comparing early endoscopic realignment, early open realignment and suprapubic tube placement, to determine the rates of incontinence, erectile dysfunction and stricture formation.

          Results

          Twenty-nine articles were identified. The rates of erectile dysfunction, incontinence, and stricture formation, respectively, were: for early endoscopic realignment, 20.5%, 5.8% and 43.8%; for open realignment over a catheter, 16.7%, 4.7% and 48.9%; and for a suprapubic tube and delayed urethroplasty 13.7%, 5.0%, and 89.0%. A one-way anova showed no difference in the mean rate of erectile dysfunction ( P = 0.53) or incontinence ( P = 0.73), and only stricture formation was significantly different ( P < 0.1).

          Conclusion

          The rates of incontinence and erectile dysfunction are similar between the groups. Only the rate of stricture formation was higher in the suprapubic tube and delayed urethroplasty group.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Pelvic fracture urethral injuries: the unresolved controversy.

           M Koraitim (1999)
          The unresolved controversies about pelvic fracture urethral injuries and whether any conclusions can be reached to develop a treatment plan for this lesion are determined. All data on pelvic fracture urethral injuries in the English literature for the last 50 years were critically analyzed. Studies were eligible only if data were complete and conclusive. The risk of urethral injury is influenced by the number of broken pubic rami as well as involvement of the sacroiliac joint. Depending on the magnitude of trauma, the membranous urethra is first stretched and then partially or completely ruptured at the bulbomembranous junction. Injuries to the prostatic urethra and bladder neck occur only in children. Injury to the female urethra usually is a partial tear of the anterior wall and rarely complete disruption of the proximal or distal urethra. Diagnosis depends on urethrography in men and on a high index of suspicion and urethroscopy in women. Of the 3 conventional treatment methods primary suturing of the disrupted urethral ends has the greatest complication rates of incontinence and impotence (21 and 56%, respectively). Primary realignment has double the incidence of impotence and half that of stricture compared to suprapubic cystostomy and delayed repair (36 versus 19 and 53 versus 97%, respectively, p <0.0001). In men surgical and endoscopic procedures do not compete but rather complement each other for treatment of different injuries under different circumstances, including indwelling catheter for urethral stretch injury, endoscopic stenting or suprapubic cystostomy for partial rupture, endoscopic realignment or suprapubic cystostomy for complete rupture with a minimal distraction defect and surgical realignment if the distraction defect is wide. Associated injury to the bladder, bladder neck or rectum dictates immediate exploration for repair but does not necessarily indicate exploration of the urethral injury site. In women treatment modalities are dictated by the level of urethral injury, including immediate retropubic realignment or suturing for proximal and transvaginal urethral advancement for distal injury.
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            Consensus statement on urethral trauma.

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              The treatment of posterior urethral disruption associated with pelvic fractures: comparative experience of early realignment versus delayed urethroplasty.

              Urological treatment of the patient with severe mechanical trauma and urethral disruption remains controversial. Debate continues regarding the advisability of early realignment vs delayed open urethroplasty. We analyzed our experience with 96 patients to determine the long-term results of the 2 approaches. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 191 men with posterior urethral disruption after severe blunt pelvic injury between 1984 and 2001, of whom 96 survived. Data on 57 patients who underwent early realignment were compared to those on 39 treated with delayed urethroplasty with an average 8.8-year followup (range 1 to 22). All patients were evaluated postoperatively for incontinence, impotence and urethral strictures. The majority of patients had severe concomitant organ injuries (78%) and severe pelvic fractures (76%). The overall mortality rate was 51%. Diagnosis of urethral rupture was based on clinical findings and retrograde urethrography. Strictures developed in 49% of the early realignment group and in 100% of the suprapubic tube group. Impotence (33.6%) and incontinence (17.7%) were less frequent in the early realignment group than in the delayed reconstruction group (42.1% and 24.9%, respectively). Patients with delayed reconstruction underwent an average of 3.1 procedures compared with an average of 1.6 in the early realignment group. Early realignment may provide better outcomes than delayed open urethroplasty after posterior urethral disruption. Increased complications are not seen and, although it can be inconvenient in the massively injured patient, it appears to be a worthwhile maneuver.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Arab J Urol
                Arab J Urol
                Arab Journal of Urology
                Elsevier
                2090-598X
                2090-5998
                17 September 2014
                March 2015
                17 September 2014
                : 13
                : 1
                : 7-12
                Affiliations
                Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Address: Detroit Medical Center, 4901 John R. Suite 1021, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. Jonathan.n.warner@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2090-598X(14)00077-1
                10.1016/j.aju.2014.08.003
                4435516
                © 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Arab Association of Urology.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

                Categories
                Initial Management of PFUI Review

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