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      Description of two endangered new seasonal killifish species of the genus Cynolebias from the São Francisco River basin, Brazilian Caatinga (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae)

      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Two new species of Cynolebias are described from temporary pools of the Verde Grande River drainage, São Francisco basin, in the semiarid Caatinga, a phytogeographical province of northeastern Brazil. Cynolebias elegans sp. n., a member of the C. gilbertoi group, is considered as the smallest species of the genus, reaching about 38 mm of standard length; it is distinguished from all other species of the group by the long unpaired fins, relative position of anal fin and vertebrae, and morphometric data. Cynolebias gorutuba sp. n. belongs to the Cynolebias zeta-clade, a group of large species supposedly feeding on smaller sympatric seasonal killifishes; it differs from other species of the group by the female colour pattern, relative position of dorsal fin and vertebrae, and cephalic neuromast pattern. Both species herein described were not found in recent collecting trips, after their habitats had been drastically modified, and are also possibly highly endangered if not already extinct. Field data relative to gradual habitat decline in the type locality region of C. elegans indicate that after pools lose the dense vegetation that provides shelter to small species, these species such as C. elegans become exposed to larger sympatric predatory species and are extirpated. These data support the hypothesis that small seasonal killifish species specialised in living within marginal shaded areas of temporary pools are more susceptible to environmental changes than other congeners.

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          Most cited references 9

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          The developmental biology of annual fishes. 3. Pre-embryonic and embryonic diapause of variable duration in the eggs of annual fishes.

           J P Wourms (1972)
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            The Biological Diversity Crisis

             Edward Wilson (1985)
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              The South American annual killifish genus Austrolebias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): phylogenetic relationships, descriptive morphology and taxonomic revision

              The annual fish genus Austrolebias is redefined to include species previously placed in Megalebias, and is revised based on characters of osteology, external morphology, the latero-sensory system and color patterns. Monophyly of Austrolebias is supported by the absence of scales between the corner of the mouth and anterior portion of the preopercular region and ventral portion of the opercular region, a deep urohyal, presence of a dark gray supraorbital spot, dorsal and anal fins rounded in males, a long urogenital papilla in males, and reduced ventral process of the angulo-articular. Thirty-eight species are recognized as valid: A. cinereus, A. robustus, A. nonoiuliensis, and A. bellottii, from the lower de La Plata River basin and adjacent areas; A. varzeae, A. melanoorus, A. apaii Costa, Laurino, Recuero & Salvia, new species, A. alexandri, A. ibicuiensis, A. affinis, A. duraznensis, and A. periodicus, from the Uruguay River basin; A. nigripinnis and A. elongatus n. comb., from both the lower de La Plata and Uruguay river basins; A. viarius, A. univentripinnis, A. charrua, A. minuano, A. adloffi, A. nigrofasciatus, A. nachtigalli Costa & Cheffe, new species, A. salviai Costa, Litz & Laurino, new species, A. luteoflammulatus, A. gymnoventris, A. jaegari, A. cheradophilus n. comb., A. wolterstorffi n. comb., and A. prognathus n. comb., A. cyaneus, and A. litzi new species, from the dos Patos lagoon system and adjacent areas to the south; A. vazferreirai, A. arachan, and A. juanlangi Costa, Cheffe, Salvia & Litz, new species, from both the dos Patos lagoon system and Uruguay River basin; A. paranaensis, new species, A. vandenbergi, A. monstrosus n. comb., A. patriciae, from the Paraguay and middle Paraná river basins; and, A. carvalhoi, from the rio Iguaçu basin. A key to the identification of species is provided. A phylogenetic hypothesis based on morphology for species of Austrolebias is compared to a recent hypothesis based on molecular data, demonstrating partial or full congruence between the two sets of characters.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                October 12 2017
                October 12 2017
                : 93
                : 2
                : 333-341
                Article
                10.3897/zse.93.20906
                © 2017

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