2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The role of the JAK/STAT signal pathway in rheumatoid arthritis

      1 , 2

      Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease

      SAGE Publications

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d10683520e106">Proinflammatory cytokine activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signal transduction pathway is a critical event in the pathogenesis and progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Under normal conditions, JAK/STAT signaling reflects the influence of negative regulators of JAK/STAT, exemplified by the suppressor of cytokine signaling and protein inhibitor of activated STAT. However, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) both of these regulators are dysfunctional. Thus, continuous activation of JAK/STAT signaling in RA synovial joints results in the elevated level of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression, increased frequency of apoptotic chondrocytes and most prominently ‘apoptosis resistance’ in the inflamed synovial tissue. Tofacitinib, a JAK small molecule inhibitor, with selectivity for JAK2/JAK3 was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the therapy of RA. Importantly, tofacitinib has demonstrated significant clinical efficacy for RA in the post-US FDA-approval surveillance period. Of note, the success of tofacitinib has spurred the development of JAK1, JAK2 and other JAK3-selective small molecule inhibitors, some of which have also entered the clinical setting, whereas other JAK inhibitors are currently being evaluated in RA clinical trials. </p>

          Related collections

          Most cited references 73

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Fibroblast-like synoviocytes: key effector cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

          Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains a significant unmet medical need despite significant therapeutic advances. The pathogenesis of RA is complex and includes many cell types, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in the synovial intimal lining also play a key role by producing cytokines that perpetuate inflammation and proteases that contribute to cartilage destruction. Rheumatoid FLS develop a unique aggressive phenotype that increases invasiveness into the extracellular matrix and further exacerbates joint damage. Recent advances in understanding the biology of FLS, including their regulation regulate innate immune responses and activation of intracellular signaling mechanisms that control their behavior, provide novel insights into disease mechanisms. New agents that target FLS could potentially complement the current therapies without major deleterious effect on adaptive immune responses.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Placebo-controlled trial of tofacitinib monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

            Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) is a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated as a targeted immunomodulator and disease-modifying therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. In this phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 6-month study, 611 patients were randomly assigned, in a 4:4:1:1 ratio, to 5 mg of tofacitinib twice daily, 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily, placebo for 3 months followed by 5 mg of tofacitinib twice daily, or placebo for 3 months followed by 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily. The primary end points, assessed at month 3, were the percentage of patients with at least a 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology scale (ACR 20), the change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) scores (which range from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicating greater disability), and the percentage of patients with a Disease Activity Score for 28-joint counts based on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4[ESR]) of less than 2.6 (with scores ranging from 0 to 9.4 and higher scores indicating more disease activity). At month 3, a higher percentage of patients in the tofacitinib groups than in the placebo groups met the criteria for an ACR 20 response (59.8% in the 5-mg tofacitinib group and 65.7% in the 10-mg tofacitinib group vs. 26.7% in the combined placebo groups, P<0.001 for both comparisons). The reductions from baseline in HAQ-DI scores were greater in the 5-mg and 10-mg tofacitinib groups than in the placebo groups (-0.50 and -0.57 points, respectively, vs. -0.19 points; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with a DAS28-4(ESR) of less than 2.6 was not significantly higher with tofacitinib than with placebo (5.6% and 8.7% in the 5-mg and 10-mg tofacitinib groups, respectively, and 4.4% with placebo; P=0.62 and P=0.10 for the two comparisons). Serious infections developed in six patients who were receiving tofacitinib. Common adverse events were headache and upper respiratory tract infection. Tofacitinib treatment was associated with elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and reductions in neutrophil counts. In patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, tofacitinib monotherapy was associated with reductions in signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and improvement in physical function. (Funded by Pfizer; ORAL Solo ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00814307.).
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Tofacitinib or adalimumab versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis.

              Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) is a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In this 12-month, phase 3 trial, 717 patients who were receiving stable doses of methotrexate were randomly assigned to 5 mg of tofacitinib twice daily, 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily, 40 mg of adalimumab once every 2 weeks, or placebo. At month 3, patients in the placebo group who did not have a 20% reduction from baseline in the number of swollen and tender joints were switched in a blinded fashion to either 5 mg or 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily; at month 6, all patients still receiving placebo were switched to tofacitinib in a blinded fashion. The three primary outcome measures were a 20% improvement at month 6 in the American College of Rheumatology scale (ACR 20); the change from baseline to month 3 in the score on the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) (which ranges from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicating greater disability); and the percentage of patients at month 6 who had a Disease Activity Score for 28-joint counts based on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4[ESR]) of less than 2.6 (with scores ranging from 0 to 9.4 and higher scores indicating greater disease activity). At month 6, ACR 20 response rates were higher among patients receiving 5 mg or 10 mg of tofacitinib (51.5% and 52.6%, respectively) and among those receiving adalimumab (47.2%) than among those receiving placebo (28.3%) (P<0.001 for all comparisons). There were also greater reductions in the HAQ-DI score at month 3 and higher percentages of patients with a DAS28-4(ESR) below 2.6 at month 6 in the active-treatment groups than in the placebo group. Adverse events occurred more frequently with tofacitinib than with placebo, and pulmonary tuberculosis developed in two patients in the 10-mg tofacitinib group. Tofacitinib was associated with an increase in both low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and with reductions in neutrophil counts. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving background methotrexate, tofacitinib was significantly superior to placebo and was numerically similar to adalimumab in efficacy. (Funded by Pfizer; ORAL Standard ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00853385.).
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
                Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal
                SAGE Publications
                1759-720X
                1759-7218
                June 07 2018
                June 2018
                May 19 2018
                June 2018
                : 10
                : 5-6
                : 117-127
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatic Diseases, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Foley Medical Building, 2061 Cornell Road, Room 207, Cleveland, OH 44106-5076, USA;
                [2 ]School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, USA
                Article
                10.1177/1759720X18776224
                6009092
                29942363
                1c921a2c-5446-489f-a0a1-72ec46f15ed0
                © 2018

                Comments

                Comment on this article