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      Preoperative Prognostic Nutritional Index Predicts Long-Term Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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          The purpose of the present study is to investigate the utility of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) as a simple and readily available marker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).


          We retrospectively analyzed 169 patients who underwent potentially curative esophagectomy, for histologically verified ESCC. We decided to set the optimal cutoff value for preoperative PNI levels at 49.2, based on the cancer-specific survival (CSS) and the overall survival (OS) by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.


          Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that TNM pStage III [hazard ratio (HR) 3.261, p < 0.0001] and PNI < 49.2 (HR 3.887, p < 0.0001) were confirmed as independent poor predictive factors for CSS, and age >70 (HR 2.024, p < 0.0042), TNM pStage III (HR 2.510, p = 0.0002), and PNI < 49.2 (HR 2.248, p = 0.0013) were confirmed as independent poor predictive factors for OS. In non-elderly patients, TNM pStage III (CSS; HR 3.488, p < 0.0001, OS; HR 2.615, p = 0.0007) and PNI < 49.2 (CSS; HR 3.849, p < 0.0001, OS; HR 2.275, p = 0.001) were confirmed as independent poor predictive factors for CSS, and OS when multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. But in elderly patients, univariate analyses demonstrated that the TNM pStage III was the only significant risk factor for CSS (HR 3.701, p = 0.0057) and OS (HR 1.974, p = 0.0224).


          The PNI was a significant and independent predictor of CSS and OS of ESCC patients after curative esophagectomy. The PNI was cost-effective and readily available, and it could act as a marker of survival.

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          Most cited references 23

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          [Prognostic nutritional index in gastrointestinal surgery of malnourished cancer patients].

          Based on assessment of 200 malnourished cancer patients of digestive organs, a multiparameter index of nutritional status was defined to relating the risk of postoperative complications to base line nutritional status. The linear predictive model relating the risk of operative complication, mortality or both to nutritional status is given by the relation: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) = 10 Alb. + 0.005 Lymph. C., where Alb. is serum albumin level (g/100 ml) and Lymph. C. is total lymphocytes count/mm3 peripheral blood. When applied prospectively to 189 gastrointestinal surgical patients those who were malnourished and treated by TPN preoperatively, this index provided an accurate, quantitative estimate of operative risk. In general, resection and anastomosis of gastrointestinal tract can be safely practiced when the index is over 45. The same procedure may be dangerous between 45 and 40. In below 40, this kind of operation may be contraindicated. The prognostic nutritional index is useful also to know the prognosis of patients with terminal cancer. Despite practicing TPN to cancer patients with near terminal stages, if the PNI remains below 40 and total lymphocytes count remains below 1,000/mm3, the patients has high possibility to die within the next two months.
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            ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Surgery including organ transplantation.

            Enhanced recovery of patients after surgery ("ERAS") has become an important focus of perioperative management. From a metabolic and nutritional point of view, the key aspects of perioperative care include: Enteral nutrition (EN) by means of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and if necessary tube feeding (TF) offers the possibility of increasing or ensuring nutrient intake in cases where food intake is inadequate. These guidelines are intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of ONS and TF in surgical patients. They were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and are based on all relevant publications since 1980. The guideline was discussed and accepted in a consensus conference. EN is indicated even in patients without obvious undernutrition, if it is anticipated that the patient will be unable to eat for more than 7 days perioperatively. It is also indicated in patients who cannot maintain oral intake above 60% of recommended intake for more than 10 days. In these situations nutritional support should be initiated without delay. Delay of surgery for preoperative EN is recommended for patients at severe nutritional risk, defined by the presence of at least one of the following criteria: weight loss >10-15% within 6 months, BMI<18.5 kg/m(2), Subjective Global Assessment Grade C, serum albumin <30 g/l (with no evidence of hepatic or renal dysfunction). Altogether, it is strongly recommended not to wait until severe undernutrition has developed, but to start EN therapy early, as soon as a nutritional risk becomes apparent.
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              Lymphopenia as a prognostic factor for overall survival in advanced carcinomas, sarcomas, and lymphomas.

              Lymphopenia is frequent in advanced cancers and predicts the toxicity of chemotherapy. Its effect on relapse and survival is uncertain. Its prognostic value for survival was analyzed in three databases of previously reported prospective multicenter studies: (a) FEC chemotherapy in metastatic breast carcinoma; (b) CYVADIC in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group 62791); and (c) prospective, consecutive phase III studies of aggressive diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas conducted at Centre Léon Bérard between 1987 and 1993. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for survival were performed. The incidence of lymphopenia of 1, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients with international prognostic index (IPI) of > 0, and advanced soft tissue sarcoma and metastatic breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Inunivariate analysis, lymphopenia of <1,000/microL significantly correlated to overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer (median, 10 versus 14 mo; P < 0.0001), advanced soft tissue sarcoma (median, 5 versus 10 months; P < 0.01), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (median, 11 versus 94 months; P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis (Cox model), lymphopenia was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer [RR (relative risk), 1.8; 95% CI (confidence interval), 1.3-2.4] along with liver metastases and PS; in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1) along with liver metastases, lung metastases, and PS; and in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03-2.1) along with IPI. Our findings show that lymphopenia is an independent prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival in several cancers.

                Author and article information

                +81-853-20-2232 ,
                World J Surg
                World J Surg
                World Journal of Surgery
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                31 December 2017
                31 December 2017
                : 42
                : 7
                : 2199-2208
                ISNI 0000 0000 8661 1590, GRID grid.411621.1, Department of Digestive and General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, , Shimane University, ; 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501 Japan
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2018



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