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      Concomitant Transmission of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses in Brazil: Clinical and Epidemiological Findings From Surveillance for Acute Febrile Illness

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          Abstract

          Background

          Since their emergence in the Americas, chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses co-circulate with dengue virus (DENV), hampering clinical diagnosis. We investigated clinical and epidemiological characteristics of arboviral infections during the introduction and spread of CHIKV and ZIKV through northeastern Brazil.

          Methods

          Surveillance for arboviral diseases among febrile patients was performed at an emergency health unit of Salvador, Brazil, between September 2014 and July 2016. We interviewed patients to collect data on symptoms, reviewed medical records to obtain the presumptive diagnoses, and performed molecular and serological testing to confirm DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV, or nonspecific flavivirus (FLAV) diagnosis.

          Results

          Of 948 participants, 247 (26.1%) had an acute infection, of which 224 (23.6%) were single infections (DENV, 32 [3.4%]; CHIKV, 159 [16.7%]; ZIKV, 13 [1.4%]; and FLAV, 20 [2.1%]) and 23 (2.4%) coinfections (DENV/CHIKV, 13 [1.4%]; CHIKV/FLAV, 9 [0.9%]; and DENV/ZIKV, 1 [0.1%]). An additional 133 (14.0%) patients had serological evidence for a recent arboviral infection. Patients with ZIKV presented with rash and pruritus (69.2% each) more frequently than those with DENV (37.5% and 31.2%, respectively) and CHIKV (22.9% and 14.7%, respectively) (P < .001 for both comparisons). Conversely, arthralgia was more common in CHIKV (94.9%) and FLAV/CHIKV (100.0%) than in DENV (59.4%) and ZIKV (53.8%) (P < .001). A correct presumptive clinical diagnosis was made for 9%–23% of the confirmed patients.

          Conclusions

          Arboviral infections are frequent causes of febrile illness. Coinfections are not rare events during periods of intense, concomitant arboviral transmission. Given the challenge to clinically distinguish these infections, there is an urgent need for rapid, point-of-care, multiplex diagnostics.

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          Most cited references 18

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          First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil

          In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.
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            Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive to Zika virus.

            Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations.
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              Emergence and potential for spread of Chikungunya virus in Brazil

              Background In December 2013, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused by the Asian genotype was notified in the Caribbean. The outbreak has since spread to 38 regions in the Americas. By September 2014, the first autochthonous CHIKV infections were confirmed in Oiapoque, North Brazil, and in Feira de Santana, Northeast Brazil. Methods We compiled epidemiological and clinical data on suspected CHIKV cases in Brazil and polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnostic was conducted on 68 serum samples from patients with symptom onset between April and September 2014. Two imported and four autochthonous cases were selected for virus propagation, RNA isolation, full-length genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. We then followed CDC/PAHO guidelines to estimate the risk of establishment of CHIKV in Brazilian municipalities. Results We detected 41 CHIKV importations and 27 autochthonous cases in Brazil. Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses indicated local transmission of the Asian CHIKV genotype in Oiapoque. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that the ECSA genotype is circulating in Feira de Santana. The presumed index case of the ECSA genotype was an individual who had recently returned from Angola and developed symptoms in Feira de Santana. We estimate that, if CHIKV becomes established in Brazil, transmission could occur in 94% of municipalities in the country and provide maps of the risk of importation of each strain of CHIKV in Brazil. Conclusions The etiological strains associated with the early-phase CHIKV outbreaks in Brazil belong to the Asian and ECSA genotypes. Continued surveillance and vector mitigation strategies are needed to reduce the future public health impact of CHIKV in the Americas. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0348-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Infectious Diseases
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1058-4838
                1537-6591
                October 15 2019
                September 27 2019
                December 18 2018
                October 15 2019
                September 27 2019
                December 18 2018
                : 69
                : 8
                : 1353-1359
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Brazil
                [2 ]Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (National Scientific and Technical Research Council), Puerto Iguazú, Argentina
                [3 ]Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
                [4 ]University of Minnesota, St. Paul
                [5 ]Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
                [6 ]Yale School of Public Health, New Haven
                [7 ]University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
                [8 ]Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
                [9 ]Emory University, Atlanta
                Article
                10.1093/cid/ciy1083
                © 2018

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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