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      Photobiomodulation therapy and endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis using 940-nm diode laser. Report of two cases


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          Diode laser (DL) can be used in endodontics both for its bactericidal effect inside the root canal system (RCS) and for photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) to accelerate the repair of periradicular bone tissue.

          Clinical Cases

          This work presents two cases of pulp necrosis/asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) that were treated with 940-nm DL, administered both to disinfect the root canal and to apply PBMT to the periradicular tissues. The cases were analysed by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).


          DL has become widely accepted due to its high antimicrobial effectiveness and its ability to accelerate the repair of large apical lesions by biostimulation. Nevertheless, differences of opinion persist within the scientific community due to the lack of standardized endodontic protocols.


          The application of 940-nm DL, both for disinfection of the RCS and for PBMT, is an effective treatment in non-vital teeth with large periapical lesions. In both cases reported, bone neoformation were found at the 6-month check-up.

          Key words:Low-level laser therapy, photobiomodulation therapy, diode laser, endodontics.

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          Most cited references15

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          Low-level laser therapy: a useful technique for enhancing the proliferation of various cultured cells.

          The aim of this work is to review the available literature on the details of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) use for the enhancement of the proliferation of various cultured cell lines including stem cells. A cell culture is one of the most useful techniques in science, particularly in the production of viral vaccines and hybrid cell lines. However, the growth rate of some of the much-needed mammalian cells is slow. LLLT can enhance the proliferation rate of various cell lines. Literature review from 1923 to 2010. By investigating the outcome of LLLT on cell cultures, many articles report that it produces higher rates of ATP, RNA, and DNA synthesis in stem cells and other cell lines. Thus, LLLT improves the proliferation of the cells without causing any cytotoxic effects. Mainly, helium neon and gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) lasers are used for LLLT on cultured cells. The results of LLLT also vary according to the applied energy density and wavelengths to which the target cells are subjected. This review suggests that an energy density value of 0.5 to 4.0 J/cm(2) and a visible spectrum ranging from 600 to 700 nm of LLLT are very helpful in enhancing the proliferation rate of various cell lines. With the appropriate use of LLLT, the proliferation rate of cultured cells, including stem cells, can be increased, which would be very useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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            Photobiomodulation for traumatic brain injury and stroke.

            There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI. Most reports have used NIR light either from lasers or from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Many studies in small animal models of acute TBI have found positive effects on neurological function, learning and memory, and reduced inflammation and cell death in the brain. There is evidence that PBM can help the brain repair itself by stimulating neurogenesis, upregulating BDNF synthesis, and encouraging synaptogenesis. In healthy human volunteers (including students and healthy elderly women), PBM has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow, tissue oxygenation, and improve memory, mood, and cognitive function. Clinical studies have been conducted in patients suffering from the chronic effects of TBI. There have been reports showing improvement in executive function, working memory, and sleep. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown modulation of activation in intrinsic brain networks likely to be damaged in TBI (default mode network and salience network).
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              Prevalence of Apical Periodontitis and Conventional Nonsurgical Root Canal Treatment in General Adult Population: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies Published between 2012 and 2020


                Author and article information

                J Clin Exp Dent
                J Clin Exp Dent
                Medicina Oral S.L.
                Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
                Medicina Oral S.L.
                1 March 2022
                March 2022
                : 14
                : 3
                : e298-e302
                [1 ]Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad Andrés Bello, Concepción, Chile
                [2 ]Department of Dentistry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]Endodontic Laboratory, Center for Research in Dental Sciences (CICO), Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
                [4 ]Department of Integral Adultos; Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
                Author notes
                Endodontic laboratory Faculty of Dentistry Universidad de La Frontera Avenida Francisco Salazar 01145 Temuco, Chile , E-mail: pablo.betancourt@ 123456ufrontera.cl
                Copyright: © 2022 Medicina Oral S.L.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 17 January 2022
                : 11 October 2021
                Case Report
                Operative Dentistry


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