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      Diagnosis and Management of Intrauterine Growth Retardation

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          Abstract

          Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with significant perinatal morbidity and mortality. This condition can be a sign of genetic disorders, fetal infection, uteroplacental insufficiency, or constitutionally small fetuses. Correct determination of gestational age is the first step in prenatal screening of growth-retarded fetuses. The discovery of a small-for-gestational age fetus necessitates fetal assessment for the evaluation of the etiology and prognosis, and for the determination of the optimal timing for delivery of these fetuses at risk of perinatal asphyxia. IUGR is more frequent in multiple-gestation pregnancies (23–34%) and will be discussed separately. There is no medical treatment for IUGR. Early aspirin treatment reduces the incidence of IUGR in a high-risk population but should not be used routinely in all pregnant women.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Clinical significance of absent or reversed end diastolic velocity waveforms in umbilical artery.

          Doppler ultrasound provides a non invasive method to assess fetal haemodynamics. We looked at the outcome of doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery in three groups of pregnancies: those with positive end diastolic velocities (PED; n = 214), absent end diastolic velocities (AED; n = 178) and reversed end diastolic velocities (RED; n = 67). We collected our data from 9 European centers. Logistic regression showed that compared with pregnancies with hypertension only, pregnancies complicated by intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR) had a higher risk of developing absent or reversed end diastolic velocity waveforms (ARED) flow. ARED flow in the umbilical artery (odds ratio: OR = 3.1). Pregnancies complicated by both IUGR and hypertension had an even higher risk (OR = 7.4). Maternal age and smoking habits did not influence the risk of developing ARED flow. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 28%. Significantly more neonates in the ARED flow group needed admittance to the neonatal intensive care unit (PED group 60%, AED group 96%, RED group 98%). The OR for perinatal mortality in pregnancies complicated by AED flow was 4.0 and in RED flow was 10.6, compared with PED flow, even after adjustment for menstrual age. ARED flow in the umbilical artery did not influence the risk of respiratory distress syndrome or necrotising enterocolitis of the neonate, but ARED flow significantly influenced the risk of cerebral haemorrhage, anaemia, or hypoglycaemia. We advise that pregnancies complicated by IUGR and/or hypertension should be followed up with doppler velocimetry to trace utero-placental problems as early as possible. A caesarean section is recommended in all pregnancies complicated by ARED flow if the gestational age and predicted neonatal weight can be handled by the local neonatal intensive care unit.
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            FIRST-TRIMESTER GROWTH PATTERNS OF ANEUPLOID FETUSES

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              Fetal oxygenation at cordocentesis, maternal smoking and childhood neuro-development

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-6700-8
                978-3-318-00313-0
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                1998
                April 1998
                17 November 2004
                : 49
                : Suppl 2
                : 14-19
                Affiliations
                Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Hôpital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Paris, France
                Article
                53081 Horm Res 1998;49(suppl 2):14–19
                10.1159/000053081
                9730666
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 53, Pages: 6
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